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Andrew S. Erickson China's rapid development is reshaping the world in all dimensions. Chinese language open sources offer insights into these critical trends. While such materials are increasing constantly in number, diversity, and sophistication, only a fraction is available in English. The analyses available here, many based on sources not previously considered outside China, are designed to help bridge that gap--and thereby increase understanding of the most dynamic great power in the international system today.

30 May 2023

The China Maritime Militia Bookshelf: U.S. Government Coverage, SECNAV Guidance, Official Video—& More!

Andrew S. Erickson, “Tracking China’s ‘Little Blue Men’—A Comprehensive Maritime Militia Compendium,” China Analysis from Original Sources 以第一手资料研究中国, 30 May 2023.

American & Allied knowledge of the PRC’s Third Sea Force has come a long way since my outstanding Naval War College colleague Instructor Conor Kennedy & I began our focused research following his arrival in Newport in 2014—now […]

26 May 2023

The Conor Kennedy Bookshelf: Illuminating China’s Maritime Militia, Amphibious + Ro-Ro Vessels, Marine Corps & Belt + Road

Just updated to keep up with the work of a National Treasure—whom I’m honored to call a colleague!
Complete bibliography with excerpts and links to all Conor’s publications in reverse chronological order. Search, scroll, read, enjoy here…
Conor M. Kennedy is a research associate at the U.S. Naval War College’s China Maritime Studies Institute (CMSI). At CMSI, […]

19 May 2023

“China Naval Modernization: Implications for U.S. Navy Capabilities”—USG/N Info on PLAN Ships & Projections of #s Lead thru 2040—O’Rourke’s Latest CRS Report

As part of Ronald O’Rourke’s continuous incremental improvements, this # 26X (!) edition of his report on PRC naval modernization incorporates numbers provided by the U.S. Navy. Given the authoritative analysis supporting these revelations, and the rarity with which they are made publicly available in this manner, they are all worth reading carefully in full!
Bottom […]

15 May 2023

Unique Time Series Order of Battle!—China’s Navy: Ships & Aircraft of the PRC, 1955–2021

A comprehensive compendium of PLAN, PLAAF, CCG ships & aircraft + missiles/weapons & sensors from 1955 to present, as found nowhere else… Consult this unparalleled unclassified reference for analysis or gaming today! 
Larry Bond, Chris Carlson, and Peter Grining, eds., China’s Navy: Ships and Aircraft of the People’s Republic of China, 1955 – 2021 (Admiralty Trilogy Group, […]

15 May 2023

Historical Orders of Battle: Soviet/Russian Naval Ships & Military Aircraft from 1955 to Now

Only from the Admiralty Trilogy Group… Check out these unique, fully updated Soviet/Russian orders of battle from 1955 to the present: (1) naval ships and (2) military aircraft! Consult these unparalleled unclassified references for analysis or war gaming today!
First, a comprehensive compendium of Moscow’s naval ships and associated missiles/weapons & sensors from seven decades ago […]

05 May 2023

Quick Look Summary—CMSI’s 11–13 April 2023 Conference: “Chinese Undersea Warfare: Development, Capabilities, Trends”

The Naval War College China Maritime Studies Institute (CMSI) has just released the Quick Look summary of its 11–13 April 2023 Conference on “Chinese Undersea Warfare: Development, Capabilities, Trends.”
***Please kindly note that this unclassified academic summary does not represent the views of any one individual participant, or the assessments or policies of the U.S. Navy or any other organization […]

02 April 2023

“Modern Chinese Maritime Forces”—1 April 2023 ed.—Order of Battle for World’s Largest Navy, Coast Guard & Maritime Militia by Number of Ships

China under Xi is steaming full speed ahead at sea. Navigate today’s troubled Indo-Pacific waters by consulting the latest edition of Modern Chinese Maritime Forces—just released!
This is the most comprehensive unclassified, open source PRC sea forces order of battle, data, and ship drawings available anywhere. It tracks the world’s most-numerous Navy, Coast Guard, and Maritime […]

20 March 2023

Apply by 24 March! China Landpower Studies Center seeks Chair/Founding Director & Research Professors of China Military + Indo-Pacific Security Studies

Great news! The U.S. Army War College is establishing a China military studies center at Carlisle Barracks, PA. The center will be similar to those at other professional military educational institutions such as National Defense University, Air University, and the Naval War College.
The China Landpower Studies Center will uniquely focus on the study of the […]

15 March 2023

Naval War College’s China Maritime Studies Institute (CMSI) Seeks New Director—Apply by 20 April 2023!

Great new job opportunity at the helm of the Naval War College’s China Maritime Studies Institute (CMSI)! Apply now to lead a leading team that publishes cutting-edge research to inform the Navy, advise national security decision-makers, and engage the Nation and its allies and partners—in a time of maximum consequence and potential to make a difference!
Faculty […]

10 March 2023

“Chinese Strategy: Universal or Unique?”—Honored to Present at Naval War College-Vanderbilt University Conference!

Is Chinese strategy part of a universal field of strategic thought, or should it be seen as a distinct intellectual tradition that cannot easily be mapped onto Western concepts of strategy?
Friday 10 March, 1430–1800 & Saturday 11 March, 0900–1700
***Please note: all times are Central Standard Time, one hour behind Eastern Standard […]

10 March 2023

ODNI’s “Annual Threat Assessment of the U.S. Intelligence Community”—Key China Content

Annual Threat Assessment of the U.S. Intelligence Community (McLean, VA: Office of the Director of National Intelligence, 6 February 2023).

This annual report of worldwide threats to the national security of the United States responds to Section 617 of the FY21 Intelligence Authorization Act (Pub. L. No. 116-260). This report reflects the collective insights of the […]

08 March 2023

CMSI China Maritime Report #26: “Beyond the First Battle: Overcoming a Protracted Blockade of Taiwan”

Lonnie D. Henley, Beyond the First Battle: Overcoming a Protracted Blockade of Taiwan, China Maritime Report 26 (Newport, RI: Naval War College China Maritime Studies Institute, March 2023).

About the Author
Lonnie Henley is a Senior Fellow at the Foreign Policy Research Institute. He retired from federal service in 2019 after more than 40 years as an […]

05 March 2023

Official PRC Wording: National People’s Congress Reports’ Content Regarding China’s Armed Forces

Revealing! Direct evidence that amid budget pressures and spending constraints in other key areas, Xi keeps prioritizing State Security, PLA/Armed Forces, military S&T, and retired personnel. See for yourself: read key bilingual wording, download full-text PDFs here!
Hiding in plain sight in the NPC Work Report is some extremely important wording regarding Xi’s timing and focus in […]

05 March 2023

Beijing to Raise *Official* Annual Military Spending by 7.2% to ~$224.79 Billion (~1.5537 trillion yuan)—Read Complete “China Defense Budget Bookshelf” Here!

PRC state media recycles perennial justifications for the world’s second largest defense budget by any measure—long the most rapidly rising of any major power. Professor Adam P. Liff at Indiana University’s Hamilton Lugar School of Global & International Studies and I should update our now-decade-old China Quarterly article on this subject, but so many basic dynamics […]

25 February 2023

INDOPACOM Report: “PRC-Russia Cooperation—Spotlighting PRC’s Continued Support to Russia Despite Legal Commitments to Ukraine”

PRC-Russia Cooperation—Spotlighting PRC’s Continued Support to Russia Despite Legal Commitments to Ukraine (Honolulu, HI: U.S. Indo-Pacific Command, 22 October 2022).
Prepared by: INDOPACOM Joint Operational Law Team, PACOM.J06.All@navy.mil Last Updated: October 6, 2022

TOPIC: PRC-Russia Cooperation
Spotlighting PRC’s Continued Support to Russia Despite Legal Commitments to Ukraine

Prior to Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, PRC committed to respect […]

21 February 2023

Harvard Fairbank Center Special Event—2 March: “‘Friends with No Limits?’ The Future of China-Russia Relations”

“Friends with No Limits?” The Future of China-Russia Relations

Date: Thursday, 2 March 2023
Time: 4:00 pm – 5:30 pm

Venue: Hall A, Science Center, 1 Oxford St., Cambridge, MA 02138

Event Category: Special Event
Click here to watch a video of the event on YouTube.


Andrew S. Erickson, Professor of Strategy and Research Director, U.S. Naval War College (NWC) China Maritime Studies Institute (CMSI); Visiting Professor, Government Department, […]

21 February 2023

Friends with “No Limits”? A Year into War in Ukraine, History Still Constrains Sino-Russian Relations

Andrew S. Erickson, “Friends with ‘No Limits’? A Year into War in Ukraine, History Still Constrains Sino-Russian Relations,” Harvard Fairbank Center Blog Post, 21 February 2023.

A year after the Russian invasion of Ukraine, are China and Russia still friends with “no limits?” Since embracing that phrase, Chinese President Xi […]

18 February 2023

Now Out in Paperback! “Chinese Naval Shipbuilding”

The Naval War College’s China Maritime Studies Institute is proud to publish with the Naval Institute a new paperback edition of the most technologically-intensive volume in our “Studies in Chinese Maritime Development” series to date!
We’ve shared our findings with all who expressed interest, up to and including leading principals in the U.S. and allied governments. Now you can examine […]

17 February 2023

China’s Approach to Conventional Deterrence

Andrew S. Erickson, “China’s Approach to Conventional Deterrence,” Chapter 1 in Roy D. Kamphausen, ed., Modernizing Deterrence: How China Coerces, Compels, and Deters (Seattle, WA: National Bureau of Asian Research, 2023), 12–27.

pp. 3–4
Andrew Erickson of the U.S. Naval War College and Nicola Leveringhaus of King’s College London begin the volume with chapters surveying how the […]