Toshi Yoshihara, “Japan’s Competitive Strategies at Sea: A Preliminary Assessment,” in Thomas Mahnken, ed., Competitive Strategies for the 21st Century: Theory, History, and Practice (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2012), 219-35.
China’s growing capacity to disrupt the maritime order in Asia and the associated operational dilemmas that U.S. forces are likely to encounter in the Western Pacific are well documented. An emerging consensus holds that Beijing could erect a no-go zone to preclude American maritime entry into waters along the East Asian littoral. Consequently, American defense planners have energetically debated the implications of China’s emerging anti-access and access denial strategy. In contrast, there is scant evidence that Japanese strategists have engaged seriously in discourse on coping with China’s ascent at sea. Tokyo remains unprepared intellectually and materially to cope with Beijing’s maritime prowess. …
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Andrew S. Erickson, Lyle J. Goldstein, and William S. Murray, “Chinese Mine Warfare: A PLA Navy ‘Assassin’s Mace’ Capability,” Naval War College China Maritime Study 3, August 2009.