05 March 2023

Official PRC Wording: National People’s Congress Reports’ Content Regarding China’s Armed Forces

Revealing! Direct evidence that amid budget pressures and spending constraints in other key areas, Xi keeps prioritizing State Security, PLA/Armed Forces, military S&T, and retired personnel. See for yourself: read key bilingual wording, download full-text PDFs here!

Hiding in plain sight in the NPC Work Report is some extremely important wording regarding Xi’s timing and focus in developing comprehensive military capabilities vis-à-vis Taiwan. See pp. 37–38: “Our armed forces, with a focus on the goals for the centenary of the People’s Liberation Army in 2027, should work to carry out military operations, boost combat preparedness, and enhance military capabilities so as to accomplish the tasks entrusted to them by the Party and the people.” (As usual, the Chinese wording is clearer and more pointed: “我们要深入贯彻习近平强军思想, 贯彻新时代军事战略方针, 围绕实现建军一百年奋斗目标,边斗争、边备战、边建设, 完成好党和人民赋予的各项任务. 全面加强练兵备战, 创新军事战略指导, 大抓实战化军事训练, 统筹抓好各方向各领域军事斗争.”) Comparing this wording against that in the sources compiled here reveals a determined, highly concerning challenge: “PRC Pursuit of 2027 ‘Centennial Military Building Goal’ (建军一百年奋斗目标): Sources & Analysis.” The Pentagon’s China Military Power Report has made a good foundational contribution, but we need far more analysis regarding Xi’s 2027 goal and the latest on his pursuit of it.

Don’t tell me what you value, show me your budget, and I’ll tell you what you value.” ― Joe Biden



Delivered at the First Session of the 14th National People’s Congress of

the People’s Republic of China on March 5, 2023

Li Keqiang

Premier of the State Council

p. 9

We worked relentlessly to ensure stability on six fronts and security in six areas,* with a particular emphasis on the latter, in order to steer the economy through various trials and difficulties and sustain growth.

* The six fronts refer to employment, the financial sector, foreign trade, foreign investment, domestic investment, and expectations. The six areas refer to job security, basic living needs, operations of market entities, food and energy security, stable industrial and supply chains, and the normal functioning of primary level governments.

p. 27

We made further progress in building up the national security system and capabilities. We continued to take a full range of measures to maintain law and order, cracked down hard on illegal and criminal activities of all types, and launched campaigns to combat organized crime and handed out severe punishments, in accordance with the law, to criminal gangs and those who

p. 28

provided protection for them, thus making fresh headway in building a peaceful China and advancing the rule of law in China.

p. 29

We remained committed to the Party’s absolute leadership over the people’s armed forces. A series of major achievements were made in national defense and military development. As a result, a number of significant changes took place in this domain.

The people’s armed forces intensified efforts to enhance their political loyalty, to strengthen themselves through reform, scientific and technological advances, and personnel training, and to practice law-based governance. They stepped up military training, increased combat preparedness, and became a much more modernized and capable fighting force.

They carried out operations in a firm and flexible way; and they effectively conducted major missions relating to border defense, maritime rights protection, counterterrorism and stability maintenance, disaster rescue and relief, Covid-19 response, peacekeeping, and merchant ship escorting. Our national defense mobilization capability was boosted. With these efforts, we fully safeguarded China’s sovereignty, security, and development interests.

p. 37

We should fully implement Xi Jinping’s thinking on strengthening the military and the military strategy for the new era. Our armed forces, with a focus on the

p. 38

goals for the centenary of the People’s Liberation Army in 2027, should work to carry out military operations, boost combat preparedness, and enhance military capabilities so as to accomplish the tasks entrusted to them by the Party and the people.

The armed forces should intensify military training and preparedness across the board, develop new military strategic guidance, devote greater energy to training under combat conditions, and make well-coordinated efforts to strengthen military work in all directions and domains.

We should improve all-around military governance and build on and expand the gains of national defense and military reform. We should see that military operations, capacity building, and combat preparedness are well-coordinated in fulfilling major tasks and speed up the implementation of major defense-related projects.

We should consolidate and enhance integration of national strategies and strategic capabilities and step up capacity building in science, technology, and industries related to national defense.

We in governments at all levels should give strong support to the development of national defense and the armed forces and conduct extensive activities to promote mutual support between civilian sectors and the military. In doing so, we will open a new chapter of unity between the military and the government and between the military and the people.

We should fully, faithfully, and resolutely implement the policy of One Country, Two Systems, under which the people of Hong Kong administer Hong Kong and the people of Macao administer Macao, both with a high degree of autonomy.

We should remain committed to law-based governance in Hong Kong and Macao and ensure that constitutional order in the two regions is upheld as stipulated in China’s Constitution and the basic laws of the two regions, and that Hong Kong and Macao are administered by patriots.

We should support Hong Kong and Macao in growing their economies and improving the lives of their people and maintain long-term prosperity and stability in the two regions.

We should implement our Party’s overall policy for the new era on resolving the Taiwan question, adhere to the one-China principle and the 1992 Consensus, and take resolute steps to oppose “Taiwan independence” and promote

p. 39

reunification. We should promote the peaceful development of cross-Strait relations and advance the process of China’s peaceful reunification.

As we Chinese on both sides of the Taiwan Strait are one family bound by blood, we should advance economic and cultural exchanges and cooperation across the Taiwan Strait and improve the systems and policies that contribute to the wellbeing of our Taiwan compatriots. We should encourage people on both sides of the Strait to jointly promote Chinese culture and advance China’s rejuvenation.

We should stay committed to an independent foreign policy of peace and to peaceful development and pursue friendship and cooperation with other countries on the basis of the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence.

We should remain firm in pursuing a strategy of opening up for mutual benefit. We should continue working to safeguard world peace, contribute to global development, and uphold the international order.

China stands ready to work with the international community to put into action the Global Development Initiative and the Global Security Initiative and promote the shared values of humanity.

Let us join hands to promote the building of a human community with a shared future and safeguard world peace and regional stability. … … …

注 意 事 项



政 府 工 作 报 告



国务院总理 李克强

p. 8

(一) 创新宏观调控, 保持经济运行在合理区间. 面对贸易保护主义抬头、疫情冲击等接踵而来的严峻挑战, 创新宏观调控方式, 不过度依赖投资, 统筹运用财政货币等政策, 重点支持市

场主体纾困发展. 把年度主要预期目标作为一个有机整体来把握, 加强区间调控、定向调控、相机调控、精准调控,既果断加大力度, 又不搞“大水漫灌”、透支未来, 持续做好六稳六保工作, 强化保居民就业、保基本民生、保市场主体、保粮食能源安全、保产业链供应链稳定、保基层运转,推动经济爬坡过坎、持续前行.

p. 22

深入推进国家安全体系和能力建设. 持续加强社会治安综合治理,严厉打击各类违法犯罪,开展扫黑除恶专项斗争,依法严惩黑恶势力及其“保护伞”,平安中国、法治中国建设取得新进展.

p. 24 

坚持党对人民军队的绝对领导, 国防和军队建设取得一系列新的重大成就、发生一系列重大变革. 人民军队深入推进政治建军、改革强军、科技强军、人才强军、依法治军,深入推进练兵备战, 现代化水平和实战能力显著提升. 坚定灵活开展军事斗争,有效遂行边防斗争、海上维权、反恐维稳、抢险救灾、抗击疫情、维和护航等重大任务, 提升国防动员能力, 有力维护了国家主权、安全、发展利益.

p. 30

我们要深入贯彻习近平强军思想, 贯彻新时代军事战略方针, 围绕实现建军一百年奋斗目标,边斗争、边备战、边建设, 完成好党和人民赋予的各项任务. 全面加强练兵备战, 创新军事

p. 31

战略指导, 大抓实战化军事训练, 统筹抓好各方向各领域军事斗争. 全面加强军事治理, 巩固拓展国防和军队改革成果, 加强重大任务战建备统筹, 加快实施国防发展重大工程.巩固提高一体化国家战略体系和能力, 加强国防科技工业能力建设. 各级政府要大力支持国防和军队建设, 深入开展双拥活动, 合力谱写军政军民团结新篇章.

我们要全面准确、坚定不移贯彻“一国两制”、“港人治港”、“澳人治澳”、高度自治的方针,坚持依法治港治澳, 维护宪法和基本法确定的特别行政区宪制秩序, 落实“爱国者治港”、“爱国者治澳”原则. 支持港澳发展经济、改善民生, 保持香港、澳门长期繁荣稳定.

我们要坚持贯彻新时代党解决台湾问题的总体方略, 坚持一个中国原则和“九二共识”, 坚定反“独”促统, 推动两岸关系和平发展, 推进祖国和平统一进程. 两岸同胞血脉相连, 要促进

两岸经济文化交流合作, 完善增进台湾同胞福祉的制度和政策, 推动两岸共同弘扬中华文化,同心共创复兴伟业.

我们要坚定奉行独立自主的和平外交政策, 坚定不移走和平发展道路, 坚持在和平共处五项原则基础上同各国发展友好合作, 坚定奉行互利共赢的开放战略,始终做世界和平的建设者、全球发展的贡献者、国际秩序的维护者. 中国愿同国际社会一道落实全球发展倡议、全球安全倡议, 弘扬全人类共同价值, 携手推动构建人类命运共同体,维护世界和平和地区稳定.




First Session of the 14th National People’s Congress of

the People’s Republic of China

March 5, 2023

Ministry of Finance

p. 5

National defense spending was 1.449963 trillion yuan, 100% of the budgeted figure. Public security expenses totaled 196.464 billion yuan, 100.8% of the budgeted figure. Spending on education came to 152.426 billion yuan, 99.9% of the budgeted figure.

p. 14

  • We remained committed to innovation-driven development and made industrial and supply chains stable.

Working to enhance the capacity for scientific and technological innovation

In 2022, the central government increased spending on basic research in its general public budget by 13.5%. We developed a plan for providing financial support to national laboratories and supported the building of the second batch of national laboratories. We spared no effort to ensure the necessary funds for research on core technologies in key fields and innovations in defense-related science and technology. We promoted accelerated implementation of major science and technology projects such as programs for bio-breeding technology in agriculture. We reformed and improved the mechanisms for central government expenditures on civil technologies, adjusted and optimized project expenditures, and tightened management of basic expenditures in line with staffing levels and spending standards. We refined the policy for supporting innovation through government procurement.

p. 38

6) Strengthening basic public services and taking solid steps to safeguard

p. 39

people’s wellbeing

We will ensure the thorough and effective implementation of the employment-first policy. The central government will allocate 66.8 billion yuan in employment subsidies, an increase of 5 billion yuan, to help local governments implement policies for supporting employment and entrepreneurship. We will improve policies for lightening enterprises’ burdens and helping them keep their payrolls stable and create more jobs. We will give higher priority to employment of young people, especially college graduates, and support employment and business start-ups among key groups like rural migrant workers, demobilized military personnel, and people who have emerged from poverty. We will do more to protect the rights and interests of those in flexible employment and new forms of employment. We will continue to support large-scale vocational skills training to alleviate structural problems related to employment.

p. 41

7) Ensuring both development and security by supporting national defense, diplomacy, and judicial and law enforcement work

Implementing the Party’s thinking on strengthening the military for the new era, we will provide support for modernization and development of the national defense and armed forces and work to strengthen our capacity in defense-related science, technology, and industry. We will provide better services and support for ex-service personnel and improve the mechanism for dynamically adjusting subsidies and living allowances for entitled groups. We will advance major-country diplomacy with Chinese characteristics on all fronts, deepen financial and economic exchanges and cooperation with other countries, actively participate in global economic governance, support high-quality Belt and Road cooperation, and promote high-standard opening up. We will deepen comprehensive and integrated reform of the judicial system, continue the ongoing efforts to combat and root out organized crime, and take a holistic approach to ensuring law and order, so as to advance the Peaceful China Initiative to a higher level. … … …

(1) Central government expenditures are projected at 3.789 trillion yuan, an increase of 6.5%. In compliance with belt-tightening requirements, expenditures in

p. 42 

central departments will see an increase of 0.8%, which will mainly be spent on areas like education, science, and technology. This does not include central government spending on national reserves, on issuance and interest payments of government bonds, and on national defense. The main expenditures include the following: 156.799 billion yuan on general public services, down 0.7%; 54.836 billion yuan on diplomatic endeavors, up 12.2%; 1.5537 trillion yuan on national defense, up 7.2%; 208.972 billion yuan on public security, up 6.4%; 155.479 billion yuan on education, up 2%; 328.034 billion yuan on science and technology, up 2%; 132.878 billion yuan on stockpiling grain, edible oils, and other materials, up 13.6%; and 723 billion yuan on debt interest payments, up 10.8%.


Delivered at the First Session of the 14th National People’s Congress

on March 5, 2023

National Development and Reform Commission