30 December 2023

CMSI Note 2: “Admiral Dong Jun Engages Friends and Foes: China’s First Naval Defense Minister Brings Joint Operational Experience”

Andrew S. Erickson and Christopher H. Sharman, “Admiral Dong Jun Engages Friends and Foes: China’s First Naval Defense Minister Brings Joint Operational Experience,” CMSI Note 2 (Newport, RI: Naval War College China Maritime Studies Institute, 30 December 2023).

From CMSI Director Christopher Sharman:

China’s People’s Liberation Army (PLA) has a new leader – and he is a Navy guy!

On 29 December, Admiral Dong Jun was appointed China’s 14th Minister of National Defense. Admiral Dong Jun’s impressive career as a People’s Liberation Army Navy (PLAN) officer will certainly influence how he executes his new role.

This analysis focuses on Dong’s formative experiences as a naval officer, and their potential implications within the maritime domain; with particular emphasis on Dong’s liaison role – representing the PLA, and ultimately the Central Military Commission (CMC), in interactions with foreign militaries.

Dong’s unprecedented background as the PLAN Commander reflects serious joint and naval focus under Xi with growing potential applications to disputed sovereignty claims in the East and South China Seas—none more important than Taiwan.

But what do you know about Admiral Dong’s Navy career? What assignments have shaped his thinking? What joint experiences does he have that enable him to assume this influential position?

The China Maritime Studies Institute (CMSI) is pleased to bring you CMSI Note #2, “Admiral Dong Jun Engages Friends and Foes: China’s First Naval Defense Minister Brings Joint Operational Experience.” We are publishing this note just one day after the announcement of Admiral Dong’s appointment to serve as the PLA Minister of National Defense.

“CMSI Notes” are a new product line from the team at CMSI. They are short quick turn analysis of high-profile China maritime events or topics that have critical policy, DoD, and U.S. Navy significance. CMSI Notes are designed to be a timely reference for senior DoD/Navy leaders, warfighters, and policymakers to help inform both near term and future decision-making. I encourage you to read through the attached CMSI note and forward it to those who need to see it today.

This CMSI Note, along with our first note published on 27 December titled, “Admiral Hu to the Helm,” will be posted shortly on the CMSI webpage. Considering this is a holiday weekend (and unlikely to be posted until next week), we encourage you to circulate this note to your distribution lists to ensure the right folks have eyes on to support the inevitable questions about Admiral Dong that will come early next week.

My profuse thanks to Dr. Andrew Erickson and the whole CMSI team who helped pull our second CMSI Note together so quickly. Andrew’s decades of experience and laser focus on China’s Navy enabled our team to get this note to your in-boxes within ~24 hours of the public announcement of Admiral Dong’s appointment.

Very Respectfully,

Christopher H. Sharman


China Maritime Studies Institute (CMSI)



Andrew S. Erickson and Christopher H. Sharman, “Admiral Dong Jun Engages Friends and Foes: China’s First Naval Defense Minister Brings Joint Operational Experience,” CMSI Note 2 (Newport, RI: Naval War College China Maritime Studies Institute, 30 December 2023).

Admiral Dong Jun Engages Friends and Foes:

China’s First Naval Defense Minister Brings Joint Operational Experience

Dr. Andrew S. Erickson and Captain Christopher Sharman, USN (Ret.)[1]

On 29 December 2023, Admiral Dong Jun (董军) was appointed China’s 14th Minister of National Defense (国防部部长) at the seventh meeting of the Standing Committee of the 14th National People’s Congress.[2] He replaced the previously deposed Army General Li Shangfu, ending a four-month leadership gap. Admiral Dong is the first PLA Navy (PLAN) officer to head China’s Ministry of National Defense (MND). Previously the 9th People’s Liberation Army Navy (PLAN) Commander, he was likewise exceptional in achieving this position from a background in theater joint operations.[3]

As PRC Defense Minister, Dong lacks operational command over the PLA (the responsibility of the Central Military Commission/CMC and which is operationalized through the Theater Commands).[4] He is instead a diplomat-liaison representing the PLA, and ultimately the CMC, in interactions with foreign militaries. Dong’s unprecedented background as the PLAN Commander nevertheless reflects serious joint and naval focus under Xi with growing potential applications to disputed sovereignty claims in the East and South China Seas—none more important than Taiwan. This analysis therefore focuses on Dong’s formative experiences as a naval officer, and their potential implications within the maritime domain; with particular emphasis on Dong’s liaison role.

CMSI’s Perspectives and Key Takeaways

  • Admiral Dong, one of the PLA’s most experienced joint commanders, has deep expertise at the operational level of war.
  • His operational assignments in the Eastern and Southern Theater Commands provide him with unique understanding regarding PRC sovereignty claims and will make Dong a potent interlocutor with foreign counterparts regarding Taiwan, the Senkaku (Diaoyu) Islands, and South China Sea disputes.
  • Within the limits of his position, Dong is likely to advocate for more robust PLA joint integration—especially as it relates to PLA options for Taiwan—based on his experience overseeing PLA joint operations in the Eastern and Southern Theater Commands.
  • Years engaging foreign counterparts, particularly as PLAN Commander, enhance Dong’s ability to convey China’s strategic goals and objectives to international audiences.
  • Dong has engaged extensively with Russian counterparts through naval exercises and high-level communications, highly compatible with China’s growing strategic and security cooperation with Russia.

Career Background

Born in the shipbuilding port city of Yantai, Shandong province, in 1961, Dong entered the Dalian Naval Academy in 1978. A career surface warfare officer, Dong subsequently served in the former East Sea Fleet (now Eastern Theater Command Navy) including as commander of the Naval East Sea Joint Command/92269 Force (海军东海联合指挥部/92269部队) in the Zhoushan Water Garrison District.[5]

From 2007 through end of 2009, Dong served as Director of the Military Training Department of the PLAN Headquarters Department with the grade of Division Leader. In this capacity he almost certainly oversaw the PLAN development and implementation of the 2008 Outline on Military Training and Evaluation (OMTE) (trial in 2008, implemented in January 2009). The OMTE acts as the overarching training guidance document that mandates what training, and how much of it, the PLAN does. This edition remained in effect for a decade until the next series was released in January 2018/2019.[6]

From early 2010 through the end of 2011, Dong served as Director of the Operations Department in the PLAN Headquarters Department with the grade of Division Leader. There, Dong likely played a role in day-to-day oversight of early naval escort task forces to the Gulf of Aden and other day-to-day PLAN operations. From 2012-2013, Dong was one of the North Sea Fleet Deputy Chiefs of Staff with the grade of Corps Deputy Leader. Notably, he acted as the PRC deputy during the first Naval Cooperation exercise with Russia in 2012.[7] In July 2012, Dong was promoted to the rank of Rear Admiral (one-star).[8]

From July 2013 through November 2014 Dong served as one of the Deputy Commanders of the East Sea Fleet as well as Commander of the newly-established East China Sea Joint Operations Command Center (ECS JOCC) (东海联合作战指挥中心) with the grade of Corps Leader.[9] In its first serious foray into joint operations command, the PLA established the ECS JOCC in 2013 as a “special joint operations command headquarters” for PLA operations in the direction of the East China Sea; particularly to coordinate PLAN, PLA Air Force (PLAAF), and potentially China Coast Guard operations in that sea area and the airspace above.[10]

As the first commander of the first PLA joint operations command entity—especially the one that would face immediate requirements in terms of “defending” China’s recently-declared Air Defense Identification Zone (ADIZ)—Dong was presumably scrutinized closely in this capacity. On his watch, PLA command and control constructs and operational forces faced real-world tests; he likely had to direct forces to address U.S. and Japanese activities within the area of responsibility of what would become the Eastern Theater Command in 2016.

From December 2014 through December 2017, Dong served at the PLAN Headquarters Department as one of the Deputy Chiefs of Staff with the grade of Corps Deputy Leader.[11] There his responsibilities likely centered on force modernization, strategy, and training; as well as multifarious meetings and official functions. For example, on 18 August 2015 Dong participated in a PLAN seminar focused on building innovative think tanks in the service.[12] Per standard practice, on 2 March 2016, Dong attended the PLAN’s annual military work meeting at which leadership reviewed previous-year PLAN achievements and current-year requirements.[13] Dong was deeply involved in the Sino-Russian Joint Sea (海上联合) exercise in 2015[14] and 2016,[15] serving both times as executive training director (执行导演).

In January 2017 Dong became one of the concurrent Deputy Commanders of the Southern Theater Command and Commander of the Southern Theater Command Navy with the grade of Theater Command Deputy Leader.[16] He was promoted to the rank of Vice Admiral (two-star) in July 2018. Whereas his predecessor oversaw the maritime operations group specifically, Dong likely acted as the principal maritime deputy commander at the physical JOCC, thereby examining how the maritime component fuses with the other components. In this capacity, he was probably involved in key events, including the 2018 Decatur Incident, the 2019 Hong Kong PLA response, and the command’s expanding area of responsibility.[17] He was undoubtedly involved in managing the PLA response to increasing U.S. FONOPS starting in 2017,[18] and presumably was involved in the joint Summer 2020 South China Sea exercise.[19]

Further afield, in March 2017, Dong was part of an official PLA delegation to Malaysia and Saudi Arabia.[20] In October 2017, in a foreshadowing of his own future leadership responsibilities, Dong visited the Philippines as part of a delegation under State Councillor and Defense Minister Chang Wanquan.[21] From December 2019 to January 2020 Dong planned and led as “chief director” the Sino-Pakistani joint naval exercise Sea Guardians 2020.[22]

In March 2021, Dong returned to Headquarters as one of the PLAN Deputy Commanders with the grade of Theater Command Deputy Leader. In August 2021, Dong was named PLAN Commander with the grade promotion of Theater Command Leader. The following month, he was promoted to the rank of Admiral (three-star, the PLAN’s highest rank).[23] Dong subsequently presided over such milestones as the launch of China’s third aircraft carrier, Fujian, in June 2022.[24] From 14-19 December 2022, Dong headed a conclave of the PLAN’s most senior officers. In Ryan Martinson’s analysis, “the six-day training event can be reduced to a single theme: make all necessary preparations to defeat the U.S. Navy in great power war at sea.”[25] On a related note, Dong has been credited with intellectually guiding the requisite “naval talent construction.”[26] He has informed “practical training closely in line with actual combat” in the Eastern Theater Command.[27] Dong headed China’s Navy until 25 December 2023, when he attended a ceremony with Xi Jinping in which command passed to Admiral Hu Zhongming.[28]

Throughout the latter stages of his career, Dong has engaged with many navies, including those of Sweden,[29]Djibouti,[30] the UK,[31] North Korea,[32] Chile,[33] Singapore,[34] and Gulf of Guinea nations.[35] Dong’s longtime interaction with Pakistani and Russian counterparts is particularly significant.[36] He has extensive experience engaging with Russian counterparts through exercises and high-level communications. The tracks with Moscow’s increasing importance as a strategic partner of Beijing, and the great and growing entente that Xi envisions moving forward. Of note, in November 2021, Dong participated in a video call discussing joint Sino-Russian maritime and air joint patrols that year. The other principals were then State Councillor and Defense Minister Wei Fenghe and Russian Defense Minister Sergei Shoigu, PLAAF Commander General Chang Dingqiu, Commander-in-chief of the Russian Navy Admiral Nikolay Yevmenov, and Commander of the Russian Aerospace Forces General Sergei Surovikin.[37] 


All told, Admiral Dong’s pathbreaking career has made him one of the PLA’s most experienced joint commanders, with deep expertise at the operational level of war. He has international, joint, and extensive naval experience in the Eastern and Southern Theater Commands, the two most important areas of unresolved PRC sovereignty claims, now aggressively pursued under Xi. This familiarity and credibility, together with Dong’s track record and seasoned status as an international interlocutor will be particularly helpful with messaging on PRC strategic goals—the focus of his new position.

The breadth of Dong’s assignments makes him uniquely qualified to serve as Defense Minister where he will represent the PLA at bilateral meetings and high-profile forums on the international stage. His navy and joint operational assignments enhance his ability to articulate and defend PRC’s positions on disputed features in the East and South China Sea and to address PLA operations around the PLA’s most pressing objective: Taiwan.

Taiwan’s 13 January 2024 presidential election and the PLA response—while an Eastern Theater Command responsibility and role—will be one of Dong’s first tests on the international stage. While the nature of any PLA military response to the elections is unknown, Dong will be charged with representing the PLA response to foreign audiences. Through his actions, he will be charged with demonstrating to foreign and domestic audiences alike, the PRC’s unwavering resolve to unify with Taiwan. Given the stakes for all concerned, Dong’s time on center stage will be closely scrutinized. But his navy and joint operational background coupled with foreign engagement prowess suggest he will be well prepared to address this challenge.


[1] Dr. Erickson is Professor of Strategy at CMSI. CAPT Sharman is Director of CMSI. The views expressed here are theirs alone. They thank Ken Allen, Roderick Lee, Ryan Martinson, and anonymous reviewers for invaluable inputs.

[2] Jiang Chenglong, “China Names Former Navy Commander Dong Jun As New Defense Minister,” China Daily, 29 December 2023,https://www.chinadaily.com.cn/a/202312/29/WS658ea3c6a3105f21a5079c7e.html

[3] As Joel Wuthnow observes, “Most paths to theater and service commander ran through service positions, most notably theater service component commanders. …There was also a new phenomenon of officers being promoted through full-time theater deputy commander positions. This route could offer more exposure to theater joint operations for future senior commanders. Nevertheless, this was a narrow path to promotion: the only examples have been Dong Jun (later promoted to navy commander) and Chang Dingqiu (future air force commander).” Joel Wuthnow, Gray Dragons: Assessing China’s Senior Military Leadership, China Strategic Perspective 16 (Washington, DC: National Defense University, 13 September 2022), 29, https://ndupress.ndu.edu/Portals/68/Documents/stratperspective/china/china-perspectives-16.pdf.

[4] The PRC MND does not have any operational command responsibilities over the PLA during peacetime or wartime. As such, China’s Defense Minister does not provide operational command over PLA forces while wearing that hat; however, as a concurrent CMC Member, the Defense Minister and the other CMC Members, including the CMC’s two Vice Chairmen, do have operational command of the entire PLA during wartime. Having served as a former Theater Command Navy Commander and concurrent Theater Command Deputy Commander, Dong does bring joint operational command experience to his new billet.

[5] Ying-Yu Lin, “The PLA’s New Generals: Security Implications,” The Diplomat, 28 September 2021, https://thediplomat.com/2021/09/the-plas-new-generals-security-implications/.

[6] “我军新军事训练大纲建设主体工程基本完成” [The Main Project of the Construction of Our Military’s New Military Training Outline Has Been Basically Completed], 新华网 [Xinhua Net], 3 January 2019, http://www.xinhuanet.com/politics/2019-01/03/c_1123942829.htm.

[7] “军事纪实 《军事纪实》 20120504 黄海观澜(下)‘海上联合2012’中俄海军联合演习纪实” [Military Documentary “Military Documentary” 20120504 Yellow Sea Observatory (Part 2) “Maritime Joint 2012” China-Russia Joint Naval Exercise Documentary], 23 June 2013, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JBPSNZA7s7w.

[8] “海军隆重举行将官军衔晋升仪式–吴胜利宣读命令  刘晓江主持” [The Navy Held a Grand Ceremony to Promote Flag Officers in Rank—Wu Shengli Read Orders, Liu Xiaojiang Presided], 人民海军 [People’s Navy], 30 July 2012, 1.

[9] As Roderick Lee and Morgan Clemens explain, “The CMC’s establishment of joint theater commands and theater command joint operations command centers has enabled the PLA to reliably plan and command joint operations for the first time. This ability to conduct joint operations is especially useful within the first island chain, given the wide range of forces that the PLA has available to use in the near seas [Yellow, East China, and South China Seas].” Roderick Lee and Morgan Clemens, Organizing to Fight in the Far Seas: The Chinese Navy in an Era of Military Reform, China Maritime Report 9 (Newport, RI: Naval War College China Maritime Studies Institute, October 2020), 5, https://digital-commons.usnwc.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1008&context=cmsi-maritime-reports.

[10] Michael Dahm and Alison Zhao, Bitterness Ends, Sweetness Begins: Organizational Changes to the PLAN Submarine Force Since 2015, China Maritime Report 28 (Newport, RI: Naval War College China Maritime Studies Institute, June 2023), 3, https://digital-commons.usnwc.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1027&context=cmsi-maritime-reports.

[11] 本报记者王元元 [Reporter Wang Yuanyuan], “海军首长视鼸间989,547护航编队官兵–吴胜利致辞, 苗华主持–杜景臣蒋伟烈刘毅丁毅王登平邱延鹏徐卫兵王建国参加” [Naval Chiefs See Officers and Sailors of Escort Fleets 989 and 547—Wu Shengli Delivered a Speech, Miao Hua Presided—Du Jingshen, Jiang Weilie, Liu Yi, Ding Yi, Wang Dengping, Qiu Yanpeng, Xu Weibing, and Wang Jianguo Attended], 人民海军 [People’s Navy], 26 December 2014, 1; 岳菲菲 [Yue Feifei], “解放军多位将领岗位调整 海军至少5人变动职务 张海阳卸任第二炮兵政委” [Many Generals/Admirals in the People’s Liberation Army Change Positions. At Least Five People in the Navy Have Changed Positions. Zhang Haiyang Resigned as Political Commissar of the Second Artillery Force], 北京青年报 [Beijing Youth Daily], 4 January 2015, http://politics.people.com.cn/n/2015/0104/c1001-26318074.html; 特约记者沈抒 桕杨 本报记者王智涛 [Special Correspondents Shen Shu and Gao Yang, and Reporter Wang Zhitao], “有一种信念在强化   有一种使命在升腾 —第二期海军学习贯彻全军政治工作会议精神集训班研讨恻记(下 )” [There is a Belief that is Strengthening and a Mission That Is Rising—Commemorative Notes from the Second Training Class for the Navy to Study and Implement the Spirit of the Military Political Work Conference (Part 2)], 人民海军 [People’s Navy], 30 March 2015, 1-2; 岳怀让 [Yue Huairang], “董军少将出任驻粤部队领导, 曾任海军副参谋长” [Rear Admiral Dong Jun Takes Position as Leader of Units Stationed in Guangdong Province, Once Took Position as Deputy Chief of Staff of the Chinese Navy ]” 澎湃新闻 [The Paper], 26 January 2017, http://www.thepaper.cn/newsDetail_forward_1608805.

[12] 李明波 [Li Mingbo], “海军召开新型智库建设理论研讨会” [Chinese Navy Holds Theory-Based Seminar on Building New-Type Think Tanks], 人民海军 [People’s Navy], 19 August 2015, 1.

[13] 赵宝石 [Zhao Baoshi], “王海在海军军事工作上强调在新的起点上推进战斗力建设创新发展” [At Chinese Navy’s Military Work Meeting, Wang Hai Emphasizes Pushing Forward Innovative Development of Combat Power Building at a New Starting Point], 人民海军[People’s Navy], 3 March 2016, 2.

[14] Joint Sea 2015 occurred over nine days in Peter the Great Gulf and the Sea of Japan, then concluded with a joint naval military parade. “Chinese, Russian Navies Complete 9-Day Joint Exercise, Hold Parade,” China Daily, 29 August 2015, http://eng.mod.gov.cn/MilitaryExercises/2015-08/29/content_4616513.htm. For Dong’s involvement therein, see “中俄海军举行大规模立体联合登陆军演” [Chinese and Russian Navies Held a Large-Scale Three-Dimensional Joint Landing Exercise], 中船重工 [China Shipbuilding Industry Corporation], 26 August 2015, https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/vlZexMljvI8KGGcOtZB7oQ.

[15] 范江怀、陈国全 [Fan Jianghuai and Chen Guoquan], “中俄‘海上联合-2016’军事演习正式开始” [China-Russia “Joint Sea-2016” Military Exercise Officially Begins], 解放军报 [PLA Daily], 14 September 2016, 3; “【好福利】想知道中俄联合军演的官兵们在干什么吗? 来这里——” [<Good Welfare> Do You Want to Know What the Officers and Soldiers of The Sino-Russian Joint Military Exercise Are Doing? Come Here—], 湛江晚报 [Zhanjiang Evening News], 15 September 2016, https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/1WFQNA8OVshnvMGe4lOHmA.

[16] 岳怀让 [Yue Huairang], “董军少将出任驻粤部队领导, 曾任海军副参谋长” [Rear Admiral Dong Jun to Head Guangdong Forces, Formerly Deputy Chief of Staff of Navy], 澎湃新闻 [The Paper], 26 January 2017, https://www.thepaper.cn/newsDetail_forward_1608805.

[17] Roderick Lee, “The PLA Navy’s ZHANLAN Training Series in 2021: Growing Emphasis on Joint Operations on the High Seas,” 21.9 Jamestown China Brief (7 May 2021), https://jamestown.org/program/the-pla-navys-zhanlan-training-series-in-2021-growing-emphasis-on-joint-operations-on-the-high-seas/.

[18] Ronald O’Rourke, U.S.-China Strategic Competition in South and East China Seas: Implications for U.S. Interests—Background and Issues for Congress, R42784 (Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service,15 November 2023), 18-19, https://crsreports.congress.gov/product/pdf/R/R42784.

[19] Brad Lendon, “China Test Fires So-Called ‘Carrier Killer’ Missiles into South China Sea,” CNN, 29 August 2020, https://www.cnn.com/2020/08/28/asia/china-missile-tests-exercises-intl-hnk-scli/index.html; “南海军事演习引发海外关注 专家: 演习区域大参演军兵种多 [South China Sea Military Drills Draw Attention from Overseas—Experts: Large Drill Area, Many Types of Participating Military Forces], 环球时报 [Global Times], 6 August 2021, http://www.xinhuanet.com/mil/2021-08/06/c_1211320206.htm; “China Holds Another Round of Naval Drills in South China Sea,” AP News, https://apnews.com/article/global-trade-asia-pacific-b825dd7a44ac3d4bafae84123af33958.

[20] 蒋子文 [Jiang Ziwen], “海军原副参谋长董军少将出任南部战区副司令员” [Rear Admiral Dong Jun, Former Deputy Chief of Staff of the Navy, Now Serves as Deputy Commander of the Southern Theater], 澎湃新闻 [The Paper], 27 March 2017, https://m.thepaper.cn/newsDetail_forward_1648939.

[21] Li Jiayao, “Chinese defense minister leaves for China-ASEAN Defense Ministers’ Informal Meeting in Philippines,” China Military Online, 23 October 2017, http://english.chinamil.com.cn/view/2017-10/23/content_7796623.htm; Li Jiayao, “Defense Minister Talks Security with ASEAN,” China Military Online, 24 October 2017, http://english.chinamil.com.cn/view/2017-10/24/content_7797926.htm.

[22] “‘海洋卫士-2020’中巴海上联合演习闭幕” [China-Pakistan Joint Maritime Exercise “Sea Guardians 2020” Concludes], 解放军报 [PLA Daily], 15 January 2020; Dong Zhaohui, “Sea Guardians 2020 China-Pakistan Joint Naval Exercise Wraps Up in Karachi,” China Military Online, 14 January 2020, http://eng.mod.gov.cn/xb/News_213114/TopStories/4858549.html;

[23] Xi Presents Orders to Promote Military Officers to Rank of General,” Xinhua, 6 September 2021,http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/a/202109/06/WS6136147aa310efa1bd66daee.html.

[24] Wang Xinjuan, “China Unveils Giant Aircraft Carrier CNS Fujian,” China Daily, 18 June 2022, http://eng.chinamil.com.cn/CHINA_209163/TopStories_209189/10164161.html?&tsrcfedwzhl.

[25] Ryan D. Martinson, “Winning High-End War at Sea: Insights into the PLA Navy’s New Strategic Concept,” Center for International Maritime Security, 18 May 2023, https://cimsec.org/winning-high-end-war-at-sea-insights-into-the-pla-navys-new-strategic-concept/.

[26] 刘峰记者牛涛 王汉 [Liu Feng and Reporters Niu Tao and Wang Han], “深入贯彻习近平强军思想 贯彻新时代人才强军版略, 畜力开创海军人才建设高质量发展新局面–海军人才工作会议在京召开 海军司令员董军、政治委员袁华智出席并讲话” [Deeply Implement Xi Jinping’s Thought on Strengthening the Military, Implement the Strategy of Strengthening the Military through Talents in the New Era, and Create a New Situation for the High-Quality Development of Naval personnel. The Navy Talents Work Conference Was held in Beijing. Navy Commander Dong Jun and Political Commissar Yuan Huazhi Attended and Delivered Speeches], 人民海军 [People’s Navy], 23 September 2022, 1.

[27] 孙前前 记者王力飞 [Sun Qianqian and Reporter Wang Lifei], “海军党委视频慰问海上海外、新域新质、跨区驻训任务部队和驻高山海岛部队–向海军各级指战员仪心切问候和新春祝福 [The Navy Party Committee Paid Its Condolences via Video to Troops Stationed Overseas, In New Domains and With New Qualities, And on Cross-Regional Training Missions, As Well As Troops Stationed on High Mountains and Islands. Heartfelt Greetings and New Year’s Blessings to Naval Commanders and Personnel at All Levels], 人民海军 [People’s Navy], 13 January 2023, 1.

[28] “中央军委晋升上将军衔仪式/习近平颁发命令状并表示祝贺” [Central Military Commission Promotion Ceremony to the Rank of General/Admiral—Xi Jinping Issues Certificate of Command and Expresses Congratulations], 华人风采CN [Chinese Style CN], https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5aU8F46NRII.

[29] “[视频]吴胜利会见瑞典海军检查长扬·托恩奎斯特” [[Video] Wu Shengli Meets with Swedish Navy Inspector General Jan Törnqvist], CCTV-7国防军事频道 [CCTV-7 National Defense Military Channel], 4 November 2011, https://tv.cctv.com/2011/11/04/VIDE1351150218491838.shtml.

[30] “[视频]吴胜利会见吉布提海军司令” [[Video] Wu Shengli Meets with Djibouti Navy Commander], CCTV-7国防军事频道 [CCTV-7 National Defense Military Channel], 8 July 2011, https://tv.cctv.com/2011/07/08/VIDE1351150059058191.shtml.

[31] “[视频]吴胜利会见英国海军参谋长” [[Video] Wu Shengli Meets with the British Chief of the Naval Staff], CCTV-7国防军事频道[CCTV-7 National Defense Military Channel], 11 July 2011, https://tv.cctv.com/2011/07/11/VIDE1351150063558551.shtml.

[32] “[视频]吴胜利会见朝鲜海军副司令CCTV-7国防军事频道” [[Video] Wu Shengli Meets with the Deputy Commander of the North Korean Navy], CCTV-7国防军事频道 [CCTV-7 National Defense Military Channel], 20 September 2011, https://tv.cctv.com/2011/09/20/VIDE1351150194690640.shtml.

[33] “吴胜利会见智利海军司令” [Wu Shengli Meets with Chilean Navy Commander], CCTV-7国防军事频道 [CCTV-7 National Defense Military Channel], 7 June 2011, https://tv.cctv.com/2011/06/07/VIDE1351150016673515.shtml.

[34] “Chief of Navy RADM Wat Makes Introductory Visit to China,” Singapore Ministry of Defence, 11 September 2023, https://www.mindef.gov.sg/web/portal/navy/pressroom/articles/2023/11sep23_article.

[35] “Navies of China, Gulf of Guinea Countries Discuss Maritime Security,” PRC State Council Information Office, 27 May 2022, http://english.scio.gov.cn/pressroom/2022-05/27/content_78239826.htm.

[36] See, for example, “中俄两国国防部长举行视频通话” [Russian and Chinese Defense Ministers Hold Video Call], 解放军报 [PLA Daily], 24 November 2021, 1, http://www.mod.gov.cn/gfbw/qwfb/4899464.html.

[37] Li Jiayao, “Chinese, Russian Defense Ministers Hold Talks via Video Link,” China Military Online, 23 November 2021, http://english.chinamil.com.cn/view/2021-11/23/content_10110231.htm.