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Dr. Andrew S. Erickson

Dr. Andrew S. Erickson

Dr. Andrew S. Erickson is an Associate Professor in the Strategic Research Department at the U.S. Naval War College and a core founding member of the department’s China Maritime Studies Institute (CMSI). Since 2008, he has been an Associate in Research at Harvard University’s John King Fairbank Center for Chinese Studies. Erickson also serves as an expert contributor to the Wall Street Journal’s China Real Time Report (中国实时报), for which he has authored or coauthored 28 articles. In spring 2013, he deployed in the Pacific as a Regional Security Education Program scholar aboard USS Nimitz (CVN68), Carrier Strike Group 11.

Erickson is a term member of the Council on Foreign Relations. In 2012, the National Bureau of Asian Research awarded him the inaugural Ellis Joffe Prize for PLA Studies. During academic year 2010-11, Erickson was a Fellow in the Princeton-Harvard China and the World Program in residence at Harvard’s Center for Government and International Studies. From 2008-11, he was a Fellow in the National Committee on U.S.-China Relations’ Public Intellectuals Program, and served as a scholar escort on a five-Member Congressional trip to Beijing, Qingdao, Chengdu, and Shanghai.

In addition to advising a wide range of student research, Erickson has taught courses at the Naval War College and Yonsei University, and has lectured extensively at government, academic, and private sector institutions throughout the United States and Asia. He has briefed the U.S. Chief of Naval Operations and his Executive Panel, as well as the Secretary of the Navy, other Executive Branch officials, and multiple Members of Congress; and testified before the House Armed Services Committee (Seapower and Projection Forces Subcommittee) and the U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission. He has provided inputs for, and reviews of, various government reports. Erickson previously worked for Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) as a Chinese translator and technical analyst. He has also worked at the U.S. Embassy in Beijing, the U.S. Consulate in Hong Kong, the U.S. Senate, and the White House. Proficient in Mandarin Chinese and Japanese, he has traveled extensively in Asia and has lived in China, Japan, and Korea.

Erickson received his Ph.D. and M.A. in international relations and comparative politics from Princeton University and graduated magna cum laude from Amherst College with a B.A. in history and political science. He has studied Mandarin in the Princeton in Beijing program at Beijing Normal University’s College of Chinese Language and Culture and Japanese language, politics, and economics in the year-long Associated Kyoto Program at Doshisha University.

Erickson’s research, which focuses on Asia-Pacific defense, international relations, technology, and resource issues, has been published widely in English- and Chinese-language edited volumes and in such peer-reviewed journals as China Quarterly, Asian Security, Journal of Strategic StudiesOrbis, Asia PolicyPacific Focus, China Security, and Acta Astronautica; as well as in Foreign Affairs, The National Interest, The American Interest, Foreign Policy, Joint Force Quarterly, IHS Jane’sChina International Strategy Review (Chinese- and English-language editions), and International and Strategic Studies Report (Center for International and Strategic Studies, Peking University). Erickson has also published annotated translations of several Chinese articles on maritime strategy. 

Erickson is the author of Chinese Anti-Ship Ballistic Missile Development (2013). National Defense University Press has just published his coauthored book, A Low-Visibility Force Multiplier: Assessing China’s Cruise Missile Ambitions (2014). He is coauthor of three additional volumes: a Jamestown Foundation study analyzing the impact of antipiracy deployments on China’s blue water presence (forthcoming early 2014) as well as of the CMSI monographs Chinese Antipiracy Operations in the Gulf of Aden (2013) and Chinese Mine Warfare (2009). Erickson is editor of the forthcoming Proceedings of the Forty-Seventh History Symposium of the International Academy of Astronautics. He is coeditor of, and a contributor to, eight volumes: Rebalancing U.S. Forces: Basing and Forward Presence in the Asia-Pacific (2014); the five-volume Naval Institute Press book series, “Studies in Chinese Maritime Development,” comprising Chinese Aerospace Power (2011), China, the U.S., and 21st Century Sea Power (2010), China Goes to Sea (2009), China’s Energy Strategy (2008), and China’s Future Nuclear Submarine Force (2007); as well as the CMSI volume China’s Near Seas Combat Capabilities (2014), and the Naval War College Newport Paper China’s Nuclear Force Modernization (2005). 

Erickson’s work has been cited widely in scholarly publications and reports from the U.S. government and think tanks such as RAND and the Brookings Institution. It is also featured in a broad range of television, radio, and Internet forums such as CNN, C-SPAN, the BBC, and the John Batchelor Show. Erickson has been quoted extensively in numerous newspapers, magazines, and online sources, including Wired, Bloomberg, The Economist, and The New York Times.

Erickson is co-founder of China SignPost™ 洞察中国 <www.chinasignpost.com>, a research newsletter and web portal that covers key developments in Greater China, with particular focus on natural resource, technology, industry, and trade issues. He has coauthored 80 China SignPost™ reports. Links to these, and his other publications, can be found at China Analysis from Original Sources 以第一手资料研究中国 <www.andrewerickson.com>, a website that posts and curates analyses, many based on Chinese-language sources not previously assessed by foreign observers, to offer insights into China and its impact on the world.

Click here for Chinese-language (中文) version of biography.


Specialties

  • China’s military and foreign policy
  • Japan/Asia-Pacific security and international relations
  • Chinese defense science, technology, and industry
  • Maritime and aerospace technology development, history and current status
  • Energy, resources, and geostrategy
  • Military basing and power projection
  • Sino-American relations and contemporary policy issues

Contact Information

ANDREW S. ERICKSON, PH.D. 艾立信博士
www.andrewerickson.com

Associate Professor 副教授
China Maritime Studies Institute (CMSI)
中国海事研究所

Strategic Research Department 战略研究系
U.S. Naval War College 美国海军军事学院
686 Cushing Road 库欣路686号
Newport, RI 02841-1207 美国罗德岛州, 新港
Associate in Research 研究员
John King Fairbank Center for Chinese Studies
费正清中国研究中心

Harvard University 哈佛大学
1730 Cambridge Street 剑桥街1730号
Cambridge, MA 02138 马萨诸塞州, 剑桥

Co-Founder, China SignPost™ “洞察中国” 联合创始人
www.chinasignpost.com


Evaluations

“Andrew Erickson may be the best analyst of the Chinese military in the United States today—he is certainly in the top five. He combines technical sophistication, great language skills, diligent research, and a keen understanding of which military policy issues and debates matter most. In my recent book-writing on the subject with Jim Steinberg, I have found Andrew’s work extraordinarily sophisticated and helpful.”

Dr. Michael O’Hanlon, Senior Fellow, Center for 21st Century Security and Intelligence; Director of Research, Foreign Policy Program; Brookings Institution

“Your insights and contributions to the national debate once again prove the wisdom of the decision to establish the China Maritime Studies Institute at the Naval War College.”

Prof. Craig H. Allen, Judson Falknor Professor of Law, University of Washington Law School

“In the 10 years or so that I’ve attended and presented at domestic and international undersea defense conferences; including those at Sydney, Cannes, Hamburg, Glasgow and London; anytime the subject of Chinese naval power came up, so did the name of Andrew Erickson—undisputably one of the world’s foremost experts in this area.”

—Capt. James Patton, USN (Ret.), Owner, Submarine Tactics & Technology, Inc.

“Andrew’s edited volume on Chinese Aerospace Power is one of the most important books on air and space power I’ve ever read. I’m delighted that he has doubled down on his expertise with the equally important history of Chinese statesman and their effective use of airpower. With his combined talents of linguist, researcher and airpower historian, Andrew is leading the way in his field. Please go to his website, www.andrewerickson.com, and you’ll find insights you won’t find elsewhere!”

Col. Walter J. Boyne, USAF (Ret.), National Aviation Hall of Fame honoree and former director of the National Air and Space Museum; author of Beyond the Wild Blue: A History of the U.S. Air Force, 1947-2007

“My sincere thanks for your advice, your guidance and your support over the last five years.”

–James Barker, First Secretary – Foreign and Security Policy, British Embassy Beijing

“I met Andrew at Harvard five years ago when I was Associate Director of the Fairbank Center for Chinese Studies. Andrew’s research and ideas were of great interest to our associated faculty. He regularly was invited to speak to our colloquia. He continues to be invited by Harvard to join other specialists to talk about issues concerning China. China’s naval modernization and the military implications for all other navies, especially for the United States, is a topic we frequently asked him to speak about. But his research extends from that point to also consider the strategic geo-political aspects of China’s naval development. Because of that his audiences are as likely to include scholars of diplomacy and recent history, as well as military experts. At Harvard we noticed that members of the diplomatic community were often in attendance.”

Dr. Ronald Suleski, Professor of History and Director, Rosenberg Institute for East Asian Studies, Suffolk University

For further assessments of Andrew and his work, see his recommendations on LinkedIn.

  • John Bradford

    John Bradford Commanding Officer at USS STETHEM (DDG 63)

    "Dr. Andrew Erickson is a national strategic asset. As a naval officer leading Sailors on ships forward deployed to Asian waters, a policy maker working on the U.S. relationships in the Asia-Pacific, and an amateur academic, I rely heavily on Andrew’s prolific writing. He turns absolutely first-rate academic research into highly readable policy-relevant publications with amazing frequency. I can think of few scholars in the field of Asia-Pacific security that go back to the well to refresh their analysis with new foreign language primary research as consistently as he does. It is not hyperbole when I say that U.S. foreign policy would be less informed and less coherent if it were not for Andrew Erickson."
  • Bill Bunn

    Bill Bunn Instructor, Advanced Maritime OPINTEL Course (AMOC) at United States Navy

    "I have been responsible for imparting strategic and operational knowledge of America's potential adversaries to warfighters for over twenty years, and for most of that time, I have turned to Andrew Erickson for analytical expertise and research. Andrew possesses exactly the right attributes and talents at precisely the right time in history. His ability to translate and analyze original source documents, combined with the unprecedented access of such documentation, at a time of upheaval and flux in the Asia-Pacific, makes Andrew "required reading" for anyone interested in understanding the region. In particular, his writings on China's aircraft carrier development, anti-ship ballistic missile program, and anti-piracy operations have provided me invaluable insights I could find nowhere else."
  • Jessica Weiss

    Jessica Weiss Assistant Professor of International Relations and Chinese Politics, Yale University

    "Andrew is not only one of the most prolific and insightful scholars of Chinese foreign policy that I know. He is also a gifted teacher. Last year he gave a guest lecture to my course at Yale University on China's military and defense modernization. Students raved about his clear, lively, and approachable introduction to the topic. Through the annual Princeton-Harvard China and the World workshop and National Committee on US-China Relations Public Intellectuals Program, I've had the privilege of interacting with Andrew on a semi-regular basis. Conversations with Andrew are invariably stimulating and informative. He is a real asset to both the academic and broader policy discussions of US-China relations."
  • Tom Fargo

    Tom Fargo Chairman, Huntington Ingalls Ind. (HII)

    "Andrew is a valued contributor to our understanding of the PLA Maritime Strategy and Operations. His research and analysis is absolutely top notch and merits our attention."
  • Cortez Cooper

    Cortez Cooper International Policy Analyst

    "Andrew is a prolific contributor of insightful analysis on Asia-Pacific security issues in general, and China domestic and foreign policy issues specifically. His articles and his blog contributions have proven especially valuable to me for research projects on Chinese military modernization, and the impact of Chinese military capabilities and concepts on regional and global geo-strategic environments."
  • Yoichi Kato

    Yoichi Kato

    "He is one of the top China military experts in the United States without doubt. When I interviewed commander of PACOM a few years ago and obtained some new infromation on the development of China's Anti-Ship Ballistic Mmissiles, I contactaed him right away for his evaluation. For me, a Japanese national security correspondent, he is the best source to seek comments on the military capabilites of PLA Navy. I have been closely following his works. I know a lot of fellow journalists in the Asia-Pacific region, who do the same."
  • Lloyd Thrall

    Lloyd Thrall East Asia Defense and Security Research Associate

    "As evidenced by the remarkable wealth of accolades, publications, and senior recommendations he has generated, Andrew is one of this generation’s foremost thinkers on Pacific geopolitics, security, and seapower. The breadth and depth of Andrew’s work—spanning from global energy geopolitics, naval and joint military strategy, tactical joint warfare, and evolving Chinese security and geopolitical dynamics—is exceptional. The quantity and quality of this research has made Andrew a thought-leader simultaneously in several fields. Andrew’s work is where I, like many, look first for nuanced and forward-leaning insight into this critical and complex region. As stated, all of the above is abundantly clear from a review of Andrew’s research and recommendations. In addition, I would like to add an element perhaps less clear and less directly quantifiable. Andrew has been a fine mentor and guide, helping more junior researchers like myself discover and develop our role in the U.S. national security community. I have known Andrew since 2007, when he gave a week to lead a week-long energy security roundtable for undergraduates. His guidance has since helped me bridge the gap between academia and applied security research and analysis. Both his writings and his openness to junior researchers have helped create the foundational literacy that younger researchers, myself included, have depended upon as we mature as analysts and thinkers. These less tangible effects go beyond the resume-style accolades Andrew has amassed in abundance. Andrew continues to be both a top-tier thought-leader in Asia-Pacific strategic affairs, and a community leader within the U.S. national security sphere. Both roles are of exceptional value."
  • Paul Godwin

    Paul Godwin Independent International Affairs Professional

    "Andrew is without doubt one of the brightest minds to enter the field of Chinese security studies in the past decade and more. Not only are his language skills superb, but he uses these skills to produce clearly written, carefully and exhaustively footnoted, insightful assessments of whatever issue he has chosen to evaluate. Consequently, Andrew's publications are not only respected, but are core reading for all of us working in this particular vineyard. Andrew's analytic skills are not limited to his publications. He is equally valuable at conferences where his intellect, clarity of thought and detailed understanding of the issue at hand add considerably to the quality of discussion and debate. I must add that Andrew's interpersonal skills allow him to present contrary views without offense. These characteristics led his peers to award him the Ellis Joffe Prize in PLA Studies a year ago. In conclusion, I can state I regard Andrew as one of my most valuable colleagues."
  • Guy Snodgrass

    Guy Snodgrass Prospective Executive Officer at Strike Fighter Squadron ONE NINE FIVE

    "I had the privilege of meeting Andrew while at the U.S. Naval War College. As a service member recently returned from the Asia-Pacific region, I wanted to learn more about the strategic implications of the region. Andrew was the clear frontrunner when I asked college professors for their recommended point of contact and all of my subsequent interactions with him have only reinforced their choice. Andrew is an insightful strategic thinker who remains entirely approachable by students, professors, and staff alike. As a leading Sinologist, we will undoubtedly see more of Andrew as the Asia-Pacific region continues to gain importance."
  • Kim YongJae

    Kim YongJae Research & Communication Officer — Trilateral Cooperation Secretariat

    "Dr. Andrew Erickson was a brilliant faculty member and also a friendly team member of the UCSD-IGCC 2013 SITC workshop which we attended together. Thanks to the article "Demystifying China's Defense Spending" which was co-authored by him, I've known his name already but it was not until this workshop that I could interact with him directly. His kindness, understanding on East Asian Cultures, and academic professionalism helped me to enjoy the whole two weeks of workshop. I have strong confidence that Dr. Andrew Erickson, armed with expertise on China, will provide us abundant knowledge and wisom."
  • Kerrie Dougherty

    Kerrie Dougherty Curator, Space Technology at Powerhouse Museum

    "Andrew is an expert in Chinese military and policy studies studies, whose language skills have contributed significantly to the Western understanding of Chinese civil and military space activities and their history. Through his ability to study original Chinese language sources otherwise inaccessible to Western researchers, Andrew has, in the past decade, made important contributions to the understanding of Chinese space history with his papers presented at the History of Astronautics symposia held during the International Astronautical Congresses and in other fora. His editorship of the proceedings of the 2013 History of Astronautics Symposium, held in Beijing, will represent a further contribution to our understanding of the background to current Chinese space activites."
  • Frank Hoffman

    Frank Hoffman Senior Research Fellow at National Defense University

    "Have been involved with Pacific strategy, Chinese naval modernization, and US strategic interests in the region for some time, and have valued Andrew's research, scholarship, and insights for years."
  • Claire Topal

    Claire Topal Strategic messaging, pixie dust

    "Andrew is a brilliant, thoughtful, and sincere political scientist with a knack for making the dry details of current political, security, and scientific events fascinating and clear. Andrew contributed a wonderful chapter to an NBR publication on Pandemic Influenza in 2006. He stood out as a highly valuable contributor not only for the quality of his analysis but also for his professionalism, writing skills, project management skills, and graciousness. His contributions to the health security field are significant and worthy of attention."
  • Eric Holmes

    Eric Holmes Navy Capture Manager at Leidos

    "Andrew Erickson is an invaluable national asset due to his understanding and analysis of the People's Republic of China's military capability. He has shared his insights into the China's mine warfare capabilities, opening the eyes of over 900 people at an NDIA Undersea Warfare conference with information not available elsewhere. Andrew's efforts are of substantial value to the US MIW community."
  • andrew scobell

    andrew scobell Senior Political Scientist at RAND Corporation

    "Andrew is one of the most promising young scholars in the field of Chinese security studies. His writings are always based on thorough research and meticulous analysis. His work is must-read for all serious students and observers of Chinese military affairs."
  • Peter W. Singer

    Peter W. Singer Senior Fellow and Director of the Center for 21st Century Security and Intelligence at The Brookings Institution

    "Andrew's research wrestles with key areas of interest to national security, that will only become more important in the coming years. His work stands out by the level of its detail, strong methodology, and general sensibility. He is well respected, both by experts in his domain, as well as the wider community."
  • G. Ryan Faith

    G. Ryan Faith Defense and National Security Editor at VICE Media, Inc.

    "Dr. Erickson is an indispensable member of the intellectual and academic landscape. His work on China space issues stands out as significant and thoughtful, and is an important and necessary part of the larger body of research and debate on those issues. I look forward to his continuing contributions to this and other fields."
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    "I've known Andrew professionally for a number of years. I consider his research to be essential reading for anyone interested in Asian military affairs. His knowledge, insight, and analytic judgement are unsurpassed."
  • Brett Witthoeft

    Brett Witthoeft --

    "I have known Andrew Erickson since 2010, when he accepted our invitation to appear at our Maritime Security Challenges conference (http://www.mscconference.com/). Andrew did a superior job speaking on the Chinese navy, leading us to broaden our relationship, including hosting me at the US Naval War College to exchange ideas on Canadian and American strategic naval thought. Andrew kindly returned to Maritime Security Challenges in 2012 (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LpFdg4LGZak), where he again delivered excellent insight into Chinese naval developments, but our relationship is greater than conference organization: Andrew has consistently provided timely and relevant information on issues of importance to Maritime Forces Pacific and the Royal Canadian Navy. Indeed, Andrew's research is a cornerstone of my work for the Royal Canadian Navy and Department of National Defence, and is one of the first resources I strongly recommend to Defence coworkers and academic colleagues. I cannot possibly recommend Andrew in higher terms."
  • Mohan Malik

    Mohan Malik PROFESSOR IN ASIAN SECURITY at APCSS

    "I have known Dr Andrew Erickson as a fellow China-watcher for more than a decade. I am an avid reader of Andrew’s writings. Andrew enjoys a solid professional reputation and has a wealth of experience in providing intellectual leadership, teaching, and research in the broad disciplines of Chinese Studies, International Relations, and Defense & Security Studies. He is an internationally renowned scholar known for his superb knowledge of and insights into Northeast Asian issues in general and Chinese military affairs in particular. He is held in very high regard by his peers for his scholarship, intellect, analytical abilities and expertise. His writings are widely quoted in mainstream print and electronic media. In fact, in a short span of time, Andrew has established himself as one of the leading analysts on Chinese military-related issues in the United States and the world. His fluency in both Chinese (Mandarin) and Japanese languages gives him an edge over other China and Japan experts. In addition to having an abundance of intellectual horsepower, Andrew is an extremely hard-working, conscientious and thoughtful scholar. Andrew is the author and editor of several important and widely-quoted studies on Chinese military affairs. His published work constitutes a substantial, original, significant and continuing contribution to knowledge on Chinese military capabilities. Much of Dr Erickson’s work is policy relevant and of immense value to scholars and policymakers."
  • Matthew Payne

    Matthew Payne Vice President of Cal Pac at Coastal Pacific

    "I’ve known Andrew to be interested in making an impact on China-US relations since I had the pleasure of knowing him through Princeton in Beijing, which we attended in the summer of 2003. I have subsequently had the opportunity to build a closer friendship with Andrew, including through his involvement in the Harvard Asia Business Club when I was pursuing my MBA at Harvard Business School. In the more than a decade since we first studied Chinese together, I’ve witnessed Andrew’s passion for understanding the more complex themes that shape US-China relations and now fully appreciate why his chosen area of research and education is so important to fostering understanding between the two countries. From my perspective as an interested reader of Andrew’s publications and a friend with substantial business experience in the U.S., China, and the Asia-Pacific, the unique value Andrew brings to his field is his ability to combine detailed and rigorous academic research with a highly personable and sincere approach to building relations with people that is greatly facilitated by his cultural skills and sensitivity. If the relations between the US and China as countries stand to be influenced ultimately by real relationships between Chinese and Americans —as opposed to only policy and politics, particularly at higher levels—I believe Andrew is among the few people who will have the capability to achieve this through the mediums of research and scholarship, building cross-border relations among public and private institutions, and demonstrating a strong determination and capacity for understanding and navigating deeper cultural issues. Andrew is an ambassador in the fullest sense and someone who will help lead the way forward into the new era of the China-US relationship."
  • Alanna Krolikowski

    Alanna Krolikowski Princeton-Harvard China and the World Fellow at Harvard University

    "Dr. Erickson is an unparalleled academic authority on China's naval and air-force modernization and large-scale technology development programs. His articles, books, and online contributions are invaluable resources for any specialist or generalist studying contemporary China and its security relations with the United States or the rest of the Asia-Pacific region. In particular, Dr. Erickson's research makes effective and transparent use of primary sources in Mandarin. This feature sets it apart from other work on these topics. I have frequently cited Dr. Erickson's scholarship in my work. In my own experience, Dr. Erickson is a supportive colleague and mentor to junior scholars and students. I would give my highest recommendation to Dr. Erickson for any project or position related to China and defense affairs."
  • Christopher Yung

    Christopher Yung Senior Research Fellow

    "Andrew is one of the up and coming rising stars of the China analysis profession. His writings on the subject of Chinese military developments can only be described as extremely prolific and insightful. Andrew's work is frequently cited by those of us in government, in private think tanks and in the private sector. That his China military peers think highly of Andrew's work is best exemplified by the fact that Andrew won, among a number of highly qualified candidates, the Ellis Joffee award for excellence in PLA studies. That is NO MEAN FEAT!"
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    "Andrew is one of the leading scholars on Chinese defense and Asian security issues. Specifically, he has made significant contributions in the fields of Chinese aerospace and naval research. Andrew's work has become invaluable to individuals studying Chinese military and Chinese security policy for the incisive research and analysis apparent in each of his publications. His incredible publication record reflects his commitment to expand knowledge on and promote discourse of China and Asia. Andrew is well known for his savvy in investigating under-utilized credible sources to delineate critical trends that have great implications on U.S.-China relations and U.S. military posture. As someone who has had the pleasure to work with Andrew in various capacities, I can testify to his nuanced knowledge of trends in Chinese military development and U.S.-Asia relations. Andrew continually pushes the boundaries of U.S. scholarship on China and Asia. Andrew also possesses sharp insight as a manager and practitioner who works well with individuals of all backgrounds and experience levels. Andrew is generous with his time and endeavors to promote greater understanding of China through his interactions with scholars, policymakers, businesses, and service members. The analytic community is lucky to have an individual with such capacity and potential contributing to this field."
  • Kenneth Lee

    Kenneth Lee Asian Equities

    "Andrew's publications and insights on China SignPost have consistently been a unique source on topical issues in China. Andrew approaches his work with extreme academic rigor but also provides a pragmatic sensibility to his publications."
  • Justin Mikolay

    Justin Mikolay Evangelist at Palantir Technologies

    "Andrew is a dear friend, and I’ve been privileged to associate myself with him and his extraordinary work for the past 12 years. I’ve also been fortunate to collaborate with him on a handful of scholarly activities, including our joint interest in America’s defense strategy in the Asia-Pacific region. We’ve co-written and published several articles in peer-reviewed journals, including Asian Security and the Naval Institute Proceedings. Andrew and I have known each other since 2001, when we were both graduate students at Princeton University. At that time, Andrew was a Ph.D. candidate in the Politics Department, and I was an MPA student at the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs. Over the course of his doctoral studies, Andrew took six courses at the Woodrow Wilson School, and we took several of those courses together. Andrew has a deep appreciation for the curriculum and mission of professional schools of international affairs, especially members of APSIA. He is a passionate and articulate teacher, and his perspectives have had profound impact on impact on me throughout my career in the military and government. He has influenced my work at U.S. Central Command and at the Pentagon, where I was a speechwriter for Secretary of Defense Leon Panetta. On his frequent visits to Washington, he always made time to educate me on his current research and ideas. He often presented his latest findings to senior military officers and civilian officials throughout the Department of Defense and the broader policy community. He is familiar with the full range of U.S. government institutions, and he has become one of the most influential and trusted sources of information and analysis on U.S.-China relations, Asia-Pacific affairs, and Chinese military culture and development. I can attest that he has helped shape defense policy speeches on the Asia-Pacific region, including Secretary Panetta’s remarks at the Asia Security Summit known as the Shangri-La Dialogue in Singapore. I have often called Andrew for his perspective and assessments during my time in government, and he has provided his honest counsel without any political agenda. I’m grateful to Andrew for his work and friendship, and I look forward to his continued contributions to teaching, scholarship, and public service."
  • Sam Roggeveen

    Sam Roggeveen Editor, blogger, strategic analyst

    "Andrew's research on China's military-industrial complex and military-technology development are indispensable for anyone interested in these topics. And Andrew knows how to communicate with influence; he balances scholarly publications with an excellent record of publications in the mainstream media and new media outlets."
  • Brian Weeden

    Brian Weeden Technical Advisor

    "For the last several years, Andrew has been an indispensable source of information and analysis on Chinese military space activities. Andrew's ability to go to the source documents and present them for an English-speaking audience in a clear, concise, and unbiased manner is invaluable to my work on space policy and space security issues."
  • Kevin Pollpeter

    Kevin Pollpeter Deputy Director, Study of Innovation and Technology in China, Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation, UC San Diego

    "I have known Andrew Erickson for a number of years now and it is my pleasure to write a recommendation for him. Andrew is one of the top intellectual leaders on China’s military and a foremost expert on Asian security issues and he is easily the most prolific scholar on China’s military. He is well-respected globally and is frequently asked to write or present at conferences around the world. Andrew possesses a formidable intellect. His publications are well-argued, insightful, and impactful and always uncover new information or present known information in a new light. He has a strong record of providing policy relevant analysis that provides a nuanced view of the many complex problems associated with China’s rise as a global power. This is aided by Andrew’s superb Chinese language speaking and reading skills. Long gone are the days in which China analysis could be done without knowing Chinese. Andrew’s language abilities not only give him the ability to exploit Chinese language sources accurately and with ease but also to discuss and develop a rapport with interlocutors and to develop relationships that lend even more depth to his analysis. Andrew’s analytical ability is matched by his undying work ethic. His energy and enthusiasm for studying China is seemingly boundless. He is relentless in his pursuit of knowledge and publishes over a wide range of venues. This includes scholarly peer-reviewed journals, books and manuscripts, news outlets, the internet and social media. Like no one else I know, Andrew demonstrates the ability to reach multiple audiences, from those in academia to high level government officials to a broader public and the wider China-watching audience around the world. And I would be remiss if I were to neglect Andrew’s great interpersonal skills and friendly demeanor. He is able to interact effectively with a wide range of personalities, including experts, government officials, business people, and colleagues. Andrew is thus not only well-respected in his community, but is also able to establish long-term relationships that act as a “force multiplier” for his analytical efforts. In sum, Andrew possesses the universe of skills that make him a valuable and trusted China scholar who produces some of the finest analysis of issues relevant to US national security."
  • John Campion

    John Campion Officer at US Navy

    "Andrew Erickson's teaching and mentoring have been instrumental to my development as a naval officer. Andrew has helped me cultivate the tools I need to grow into an important actor in the Sino-American maritime relationship. As a midshipman at the US Naval Academy, I grew increasingly interested in Sino-American maritime affairs. As this interest grew, numerous professors recommended that I become familiar Andrew's work. I frequently read articles written by Andrew and also attended guest lectures he gave at the Naval Academy. As I wrote my honors thesis on using maritime cooperation as a mechanism for avoiding great-power conflict, I reached out to Andrew and asked him to serve as an adviser for my thesis. While thesis advisers are generally only Naval Academy professors, Andrew eagerly agreed to advise me. He provided invaluable insight and editing of my work. I received the 2010 Naval Intelligence Foundation Award, given to the midshipman of the graduating class who has the highest level of academic achievement among those students participating in the honors program. I largely credit this distinction to Andrew's assistance. Andrew continued to mentor me throughout my graduate education. Andrew's recommendation of the Peking University-London School of Economics joint masters in International Affairs was pivotal in my decision to enroll in this program and allowed me to study under such influential Chinese scholars as Wang Jisi, Zhu Feng, and Pan Wei. Andrew continued to advise me on the two theses I wrote for this program, the first on the development of Chinese naval diplomacy and the latter on the London Naval Declaration of 1909. As a naval nuclear submarine officer, I continue to rely on Andrew to remain informed on Sino-American maritime affairs. While my current career focus is on becoming a proficient nuclear operator, Andrew's regular e-mails and the articles he posts on his website provide me with the impetus to continue to think critically about Sino-American maritime affairs. Continuing to monitor China's naval development under Andrew's guidance ensures that I will be a better informed officer down the line when I am called upon to play a larger role in Sino-American relations. Andrew's tutelage has been critical to my development as a naval officer. Andrew's expertise in international relations, maritime history, and naval technology has helped me not only become more knowledgeable about these matters but has also helped me develop the tools I need to frame the questions I ask and the results I find in my research on these topics. While Andrew's knowledge on Sino-American maritime affairs is unrivaled, I am most grateful for the time and energy he has devoted to my development. While I am still only a junior officer in the Navy, Andrew has consistently taken time out of his busy schedule to mentor me. I know that I am not the only one to receive this attention, and I truly value this effort."
  • Scott Truver

    Scott Truver Director, TeamBlue National Security Programs, Gryphon Technologies

    "Andrew is a highly skilled and experienced research-analyst, broadly focused on international relations and national security affairs, but specializing in Chinese military/naval subjects. In that he is world class. We have collaborated on Chinese Navy research focusing on comparative USN/PLAN mine warfare capabilities. He is very articulate in speaking and writing. I cannot recommend him more highly."
  • Walter Ladwig

    Walter Ladwig Assistant Professor (UK: Lecturer) in International Relations at King's College London

    "I have known Andrew for more than a decade, dating back to our days as graduate students in Princeton. Even while he was a PhD student, Andrew demonstrated an ability to combine rigorous analysis with attention to policy-relevant conclusions—equally at home in the Politics Department and the Woodrow Wilson School. As an academic he has carried these twin imperatives into his scholarly work which is notable for both its rigor and its sheer volume. Andrew’s reputation as one of the foremost analysts of the People’s Liberation Army (PLA)—particularly naval issues—is well established here in the UK: my own graduate students and colleagues who study the Chinese military frequently reference his writings in their own work. Having collaborated with Andrew on several articles and book chapters, I can also say that he is an affable and diligent colleague who not only brings out the best in other’s work, he is a genuine pleasure to work with. In short, Andrew is the kind of prodigious scholar and engaging personality that everyone wants in their department. If I thought I could woo him away from the Naval War College, I would…."
  • Drew Thompson

    Drew Thompson Director for China, Taiwan and Mongolia; Department of Defense

    "Andrew Erickson is a prolific author who has made valuable contributions to our understandings of China’s maritime strategy and naval modernization. His products are consistently of a very high-quality reflecting his exacting methodology and analytical rigor."
  • Benjamin Armstrong

    Benjamin Armstrong Naval Aviator at US Navy

    "Dr. Erickson's work is widely consumed in military and government circles because of his expert knowledge and analysis. On a personal level, his willingness to engage with junior members of the policy and naval analysis community sets him apart in helping to encourage future generations of analysts and officers."
  • Marc Szepan

    Marc Szepan Aviation executive on academic sabbatical at the University of Oxford

    "It is my absolute pleasure to write on Andrew's behalf. I have known Andrew since both of us spent a year at Harvard during the academic year 2010-2011. At the time, I had decided to take an academic leave from the aviation industry where I had served most recently as Senior Vice President, Airlines Operations Solutions, at Lufthansa Systems, the IT services business segment of Lufthansa Group. Andrew is an absolutely first rate scholar who distinguishes himself by virtue of his deep domain knowledge across an extraordinarily broad range of issues in Chinese and Asian-Pacific affairs, his ability to deep dive into arcane empirical details and to maintain a view for broader theoretical and strategic themes at the same time, his extraordinary scholarly productivity, his knack for translating academic research for the benefit of a broader audience, and his talent for identifying and communicating policy-relevant aspects of his research. Equally important, Andrew is an exemplary mentor of younger scholars who gives generously of his time to help younger colleagues and students develop their own research and professional careers. At Harvard, Andrew has gone far beyond the call of duty in terms of supporting the "Harvard Asia Quarterly", an academic journal of Asian studies which is affiliated with the Harvard University Asia Center and advised by its Director, Professor Arthur Kleinman, and for which I had the pleasure of serving as Deputy Editor-in-Chief. As a former industry executive, I would like to highlight Andrew's extraordinarily impressive interest in and grasp of technical details and developments that is rarely found outside industry and that inform and distinguish Andrew's research and policy recommendations. Last but certainly not least, Andrew is a true team player with whom it is a true pleasure to collaborate and whose outstanding track record as a scholar, mentor, and policy advisor has not affected his sense of humility and groundedness. I consider myself fortunate to have had - and to continue having - the opportunity to work with and learn from Andrew."
  • Tobias Harris

    Tobias Harris Japan analyst at Teneo Intelligence

    "I have followed Andrew's work on the Chinese military for several years now. He is an indispensable source of analysis on China's military modernization and one of the first stops I make when trying to understand its regional consequences."
  • Vernon Bashaw

    Vernon Bashaw Research Staff Member at Institute for Defense Analyses

    "I first met Andrew while studying at the Naval War college, and have benefited from his insightful writings and analysis in a series of positions afterwards, including as the Seventh Fleet N2. Andrew's work is indispensable to anyone following the Chinese military particularly Chinese naval developments. I would not hesitate to say that the information Andrew derives from public sources would cost millions if it had to be obtained by intelligence means."
  • Peter Dutton

    Peter Dutton Professor and Director, China Maritime Studies Institute, U.S. Naval War College, Newport, Rhode Island

    "Andrew Erickson is quite simply one of the very finest scholars of Chinese and Asian security affairs active in the field today. Every day I rely on his insights and thoughtful analysis to deepen my own understanding of China-related security matters, as do many of America’s most senior officials and scholars. Andrew has an extraordinary track record of publication across a range of China-related disciplines, including security affairs, international relations, Asian studies, and economics. Each publication presents highly sophisticated, policy-influential research and his writings often set the agenda for the development of US-China and Asia-Pacific policies. In particular, in the field of the national security implications of China’s aerospace development, Andrew has no peer. Andrew’s research often represents the first serious work on a given subject and sometimes challenges conventional wisdom. He is repeatedly the first to recognize and analyze critical developments in an era in which the rapidity of Chinese technology and weapons advancements surprises the vast majority of scholars and analysts. His work on the development and deployment of a Chinese an anti-ship ballistic missile and Chinese mine warfare capabilities are both definitive and authoritative. He wrote the first-ever scholarly analysis of China’s space event support ships and associated tracking infrastructure, the most advanced, comprehensive analysis to date on Chinese aero-engines. Andrew is an outstanding colleague and team member. He played an integral role in the founding and development of the China Maritime Studies Institute, assuming collaborative leadership over many of the Institute’s key functions. He has been especially instrumental in demonstrating the research value of electronic databases, developing and applying innovative analytical methodologies, and selecting and acquiring Chinese-language books, periodicals, and newspapers. Andrew possesses highly sophisticated Chinese (Mandarin) language skills and a working knowledge of Japanese. These skills enable Andrew to develop and maintain valuable relations with a wide range of academics, officials, and public intellectuals throughout Asia, allowing Andrew to develop insights from an ‘insider’s’ point of view. Andrew is an experienced educator in a wide range of venues. At the Naval War College he co-taught two courses: China’s Maritime Development, and China’s National Security. He leads groups of mid-career professionals in the University of California Institute for Global Conflict and Cooperation’s annual summer studies of innovation and technology in China. Andrew is the consummate professional scholar and educator whose extraordinary portfolio of accomplishments demonstrates his deep dedication to producing the highest quality China-related national security research. His professionalism, collegiality, and work ethic make it a pleasure to work with him."
  • Courtney J. Fung

    Courtney J. Fung Assistant Professor of International Relations at The University of Hong Kong

    "I turn to Andrew's webpage to read his of-the-minute analyses of China's security issues. Always succinct and clear in his treatment of contentious matters, Andrew's writings are an excellent resource for researchers of contemporary Chinese security and defense affairs."
  • Thomas Henderschedt

    Thomas Henderschedt U.S. Navy Officer

    "Andrew Erickson is THE authoritative open-source voice on the PLA Navy and Chinese maritime strategies, perspectives, and developments. As a former military attaché in Beijing, and still very much involved in issues regarding the PRC, I eagerly read every paper that Andrew publishes, and consider every blog entry he pens. While not always in agreement, I am always thankful that Andrew works with such energy and passion, possesses such objectivity on his areas of expertise, and utilizes such broad and deep resources. He is the academic with whom I discuss my theories and thoughts on PRC maritime issues. I have known Andrew for several years, and can say from very direct experience, that his research is not only consumed by the US security establishment, but the academic community also regards his work as authoritative, all-encompassing, and unprecedented. He is the recognized expert on Chinese maritime matters in and outside of the Navy, and possesses enviable worldwide contacts that serve to broaden his perspective and facilitate his novel views. I do not provide endorsements on this site; Andrew is the exception. If you want to understand developments in China you must follow his work. His finger is on the pulse of China’s maritime developments. Simply stated, he is the best!"
  • Carlos Ramos-Mrosovsky

    Carlos Ramos-Mrosovsky Associate at Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer LLP

    "Professor Erickson is a go-to scholar for up to date analysis of U.S.-China relations and geopolitics. His work is comprehensive, insightful, and of immense value to anyone interested in achieving a deeper understanding of the U.S.-China relationship."
  • Stanley Weeks

    Stanley Weeks Adjunct Professor, U.S. Naval War College

    "Andrew is an exceptionally knowledgeable and insightful analyst of China and its security and military development--indeed, I consider him among the top four young China analysts in the United States and globally. He is unusually skilled in focusing on the key analytic issues, and articulating them clearly and concisely. Andrew is a national asset for US security policy."
  • Jean Hyun

    Jean Hyun DPhil Candidate at Oxford University

    "I had the pleasure of getting to know Andrew at Harvard. Not only is Andrew one of the foremost experts in Asia-Pacific security, but better yet, he is also an excellent communicator who can discuss complex research issues clearly and impressively in multiple languages. Authoritative as he is accessible, Andrew was a great mentor and active contributor to intellectual life at Harvard."
  • Kabir S

    Kabir S Emerging Markets

    "Andrew is a leading light in understanding the most pressing security issues facing the US. He is an expert on China/Asia-Pacific security, and is able to marshal his knowledge to inform and advise policy makers and investors alike to make better decisions. Andrew is diligent, assiduous, and brilliant."
  • Alan Park

    Alan Park Founder at FluentU

    "I have been fortunate to know Andrew for almost 10 years now, ever since first meeting Andrew at a conference on US-China relations. Even back then, it was obvious that he was a rising star who had amazing insight into East Asia, along with an incredible ability to bring people together under a common goal. Even so, what he has accomplished since then boggles my mind. His prolific, ground breaking, and insightful scholarship on East Asia is a go to resource for thinkers and policy-makers who are serious about China. His deep knowledge of Chinese culture and language enables him to infuse his work with original research, perspective, and insights which can't be found anywhere else. As someone involved in Chinese language education, I also admire his tremendous prowess in developing his online presence through influential medial channels like China Signpost. Andrew is already an influencer of the influencers and I am excited to see his next steps."
  • chris heber

    chris heber Pilot at US Air Force

    "I have known Dr. Erickson for several years. He is one of the preeminent scholars working on Chinese military capabilities and intentions, and what this means for both the Northeast Asian region and the world as a whole. Critically, Dr. Erickson’s work bridges the gap often present between the theoretical and practical, making him a relevant and oft-cited source for today’s military leaders and policy makers."
  • Kristen Gunness

    Kristen Gunness CEO at Vantage Point Asia, LLC

    "Andrew's work on Chinese maritime and security issues has been some of the most well-researched and informed work in the field. Given the high quality of his analysis, I often selected his research papers and academic articles to send to the Chief of Naval Operations and other navy leaders to inform their perspective on China. Andrew's work has greatly contributed to the Navy's and DOD's understanding of China's maritime issues and military modernization programs. I would not hesitate to recommend him or his work to anyone who wants an in-depth, thoughtful, and well-researched perspective on these issues."
  • Jason Yuki Osuga

    Jason Yuki Osuga Joint Program Manager, Dept. of Defense, US Navy Officer

    "Professor Erickson is extremely dedicated to training and mentoring the next generation of Naval Officers through his passion to teach various disciplines in the maritime, security, and Science & Technology realms. As an academic, Andrew never spins the facts to fit any one agenda. His knowledge base spans the whole of the Asia-Pacific region, and across many functional domains. His analysis is cogent, timely, and piercing. Andrew is a true asset to the Naval War College, US Navy, the Defense establishment, and the national security think-tanks worldwide."
  • June Teufel Dreyer

    June Teufel Dreyer Professor at University of Miami

    "Like Dr. Erickson, I have an interest in the Chinese military. His work in this area is consistently of the highest quality: well-informed, astute analysis, and objective in tone. The work that Dr. Erickson and his colleagues at the Naval War College's Maritime Studies Institute is invaluable for those engaged in policymaking"
  • Gabe Collins

    Gabe Collins J.D. Candidate at University of Michigan Law School

    "I've known Andrew since 2001: first as a fellow Chinese-language student at Princeton and Beijing Normal University, then as a Research Fellow helping Andrew at the Naval War College from 2006-08, and most recently as a coauthor on numerous publications and co-founder of China SignPost, a research newsletter that we've published together since 2010. Andrew is a superb China scholar and a well-respected rising star--not just in the U.S., but in the global China and Asia-Pacific studies community as well. He has a keen intellect, strong language skills, and deep intercultural understanding. His analytic work reflects a powerful desire to seek the truth and apply it to help craft practical solutions to pressing, complex problems. Deeply incisive in his scholarly approach, Andrew identifies the key issues very rapidly in even the most complicated situations, then applies his unparalleled work ethic. The result is that his scholarly range is broad, but he can also dive deep on a wide spectrum of important subjects. I have seen no other China scholar who is able to do this; Andrew's one-of-a-kind capabilities set his work apart. His prolific research consistently embraces and shows the multidisciplinary impact China's growth and development have on myriad U.S. and global interests. Andrew also has an exceedingly rare trait for someone with a top-caliber scholarly mind: he is a superb organizer. With a strong track record of bringing people together for international China conferences, educational exchanges, and other activities, Andrew executes such events in top-notch fashion--even when balancing these efforts with a consistently prodigious research workload. The same applies to his classroom skills. For several years now, he has taught well-regarded courses to U.S. and international officers at the Naval War College and advised countless student research projects in Newport, Cambridge, Washington, and beyond--despite shouldering a research and organizational load that few others could sustain. Finally, Andrew has a unique ability to interact effectively with a wide range of officials, experts, and businesspeople across the Asia-Pacific, individuals who all too often do not communicate consistently or effectively among themselves. His earnest pursuit of empirically-grounded scholarship, coupled with his deep respect for people regardless of their background, culture, or politics, make him a trusted interlocutor for both the U.S. government decision-makers who rely on his counsel and the Asian officials and professionals--including those in China and its military--who likewise seek to discuss important matters with him. For anyone needing a leader who can produce first-class China scholarship while serving simultaneously as a cornerstone of classroom and curricular activities and an effective organizer and credible convener of major events, Andrew is absolutely my first choice. He should be yours as well."
  • Joel Wuthnow

    Joel Wuthnow China Analyst at CNA

    "Andrew Erickson is a remarkably prolific and talented scholar of Chinese security and defense issues. He has made valuable contributions both in the academy and in public policy discussions. His research is particularly impressive because he utilizes a broad range of often overlooked Chinese language sources and is able to distill them for both specialist and generalist audiences. I would recommend his research and teaching skills without reservations."
  • David A. Deptula

    David A. Deptula President at The Deptula Group, LLC

    "As a leader, strategist, commander, and scholar of airpower, I have participated in, and watched developments in Asia-Pacific closely, with the most authoritative sources at my disposal. As China continues to have a profound military-political impact in that domain, I know of no scholar offering better analysis on the subject than Dr. Andrew Erickson. In my current efforts, I value Andrew's work using Chinese-language open sources for its cutting-edge insights on Chinese aerospace developments and perspectives, which are simply unequaled elsewhere. Andrew's path-breaking study on Chinese statesmen and their use of airpower explains how Beijing's leaders have finally assembled a wide range of increasingly-capable air assets to support their statecraft. Andrew's just-published book on Chinese ASBM development contains a particularly valuable chapter documenting the PLA's rapid progress in building an advanced C4ISR network to support its operations. I endorsed his edited volume on Chinese Aerospace Power as a "must read," and I commend him to you now as the foremost scholar on Chinese aerospace development."
  • Michael Beckley

    Michael Beckley Assistant Professor at Tufts University

    "Andrew is not only one of the most insightful China scholars around, but also one of the most prolific, having written detailed studies on the China's military, energy policy, and diplomatic affairs. His research provides an indispensable resource for academics and practitioners alike, and I have used his work extensively in my own research."
  • Abraham Denmark

    Abraham Denmark Vice President for Political and Security Affairs at the National Bureau of Asian Research

    "Andrew is outstanding researcher and analyst, and is one of America's leading experts on China's military. A prolific and highly talented writer, Andrew's body of work has already made several important contributions to the acadmiec community and has provided important insights to American strategists and policymakers focused on China. For his outstanding contributions to the understanding of China’s military, Andrew was elected by representatives of the Chinese seucirty studies community to receive the inaugural 2012 Ellis Joffe Prize for PLA Studies. The prize honors the memory of Ellis Joffe, a founding figure in the study of the People’s Liberation Army (PLA), and recognizes a rising scholar who has enhanced the field of China security studies and who demonstrates Dr. Joffe’s traits of grace and civility. Dr. Erickson distinguished himself by the volume and quality of his work, signaling a promising future in PLA studies. Andrew is an extraordinary talent and a highly valued leader in the Chinese security studies community. He has my strongest recommendation."
  • Joshua H. Ho

    Joshua H. Ho Deputy Director, Corporate HR at SingHealth

    "Andrew has always been very prolific in his publishing of and interpretation of the military activities and force development plans of the PLA and especially of the PLAN. His analysis is insightful and is always referred to as primary material when writing or speaking about the PLAN. In terms of the names of scholars who you would refer to for expert opinion on the PLAN, his would be the first few names that would come to mind as well. He will definitely be or if not already is a leading scholar of the Chinese Military and its Navy in particular."
  • Gary Sampson

    Gary Sampson Commanding Officer at Company A, Marine Cryptologic Support Battalion

    "I knew Andrew by reputation years before I had the pleasure of meeting him in person. While I was a full-time graduate student at National Sun Yat-sen University in Kaohsiung, Taiwan, Andrew's research and scholarship concerning the Chinese anti-ship ballistic missile was instrumental in my own master's degree research efforts. His works were the highest quality, most abundant source for reputable information about the DF-21D which I referenced as I wrote my master's thesis focused on China's anti-access and area denial (A2AD) capabilities. Later, when I found myself at the Naval War College for a brief visit, he took time out of his busy schedule to meet with me and talk about China. Not just a reputable and formidable scholar on Chinese weapons systems, defense and security issues, and East Asia in general, he is also a true gentleman. While my current graduate research into the Chinese nuclear weapons program has diverged somewhat from the A2AD realm, I find earlier scholarship by Andrew about Chinese nuclear systems to be helpful aids once again. I recommend Andrew wholeheartedly and without reservation."
  • Hans Kristensen

    Hans Kristensen Director, Nuclear Information Project at Federation of American Scientists

    "Andrew is an outstanding analyst and resource for understanding Chinese defense programs and developments, policy, and related security issues. His productivity and professionalism are highly impressive."
  • Jan van Tol

    Jan van Tol Senior Fellow at CSBA

    "Andrew is extraordinary researcher and prolific writer on defense and national security issues pertaining to China as well as to the Asia-Pacific region more generally. His work on the evolution of the PLA Navy and other military forces continues to be cutting edge, and is tremendously useful both for military professionals and for others working in the national security/defense communities. Much official work in these areas is necessarily classified, so what makes Andrew’s open source research especially valuable is that his writings present very thorough, highly detailed analysis of important trends, issues, and challenges pertaining to the US-China relationship, including the military balance in the Western Pacific, to inform a wide range of audiences having diverse interests in how that relationship evolves. I recommend him most enthuastically!"
  • Timothy Heath

    Timothy Heath Senior analyst at USPACOM

    "Andrew Erickson is without question one of the top experts in the field of PLA studies. I value Andrew's analysis and expertise when conducting my own research. His articles and books are insightful, thoughtful, and timely."
  • Joshua Rovner

    Joshua Rovner John Goodwin Tower Chair of International Politics and National Security at Southern Methodist University

    "Andrew Erickson was a terrific colleague when we worked together at the U.S. Naval War College. He was always willing to reach out across disciplinary and departmental lines in order to seek out other researchers. Andrew is a diligent scholar and a serious analyst of Chinese strategy and defense politics. I recommend him without reservation."
  • Bryan McGrath

    Bryan McGrath Managing Director, The FerryBridge Group

    "Andrew Erickson is the preeminent scholar on the capability and capacity of the People's Liberation Army. His research spans a broad spectrum from naval capability to cyber operations, and his contacts within the People's Republic of China are unmatched. Andrew's use of primary Chinese sources in his work lends an unparalleled authenticity to the conclusions he reaches. Leading the U.S. Navy Strategic Actions Group from 2006-2008, I leaned heavily on Andrew for his assessments of Chinese naval power and intent as we crafted the nation's Maritime Strategy. Andrew's writing and thinking are clear and comprehensive, but it is in his approach to discussion and debate where he rises to the top. Always prepared, he conveys his points eloquently and simply, always with great respect for the work and opinions of his interlocutors. He is the ideal panelist, mixing deep insight, considerable enthusiasm, good manners and humor in a package that demands attention."
  •  Brendan Mulvaney

     Brendan Mulvaney Professor at USNA

    "I've worked with Andrew over the last several years on all manner of topics related to China. Most recently he was an active participant in the Minerva program to study Science, Innovation, and Technology in China. As one of the leading experts in the fields of Chinese naval and aviation endeavors, Dr. Erickson continues to make lasting contributions to our understanding of the PRC ways, means, and ends. His in-depth knowledge of technical hurdles facing China, and some they have overcome, is coupled with his broad understanding of Chinese long term goals. His research continually advances the field, and serves as a signpost for experts, policymakers, and generalists all to follow."
  • Sumit Ganguly

    Sumit Ganguly Professor at Indiana University

    "Andrew Erickson is easily one of the most talented, productive and knowledgeable authorities on the PLAN's naval modernization, expansion and current capabilities. He writes with authority, clarity and verve on these matters."
  • John Holden

    John Holden Nonresident Senior Associate at Carnegie Endowment for International Peace

    "Andrew is one of the very best China analysts in his generation, and already in his career has added immensely to American understanding of China and Sino-American security issues. Andrew is unusually productive, and his work is innovative and insightful."
  • Alessio Patalano

    Alessio Patalano Lecturer in East Asian Warfare & Security at Department of War Studies, King's College London

    "I had the opportunity to work with Andrew on an international project on seapower in East Asia which is currently under review for publication. Andrew is the outstanding scholar on the evolution of Chinese naval technology and on Chinese domestic debates on seapower of his generation. He's meticulous in his research, razor-sharp in his analysis and feedback, and very approachable as an individual. I was delighted we had a chance to work together and I do look forward to more opportunities to work together in the future."
  • Xiaoyu Pu 蒲晓宇

    Xiaoyu Pu 蒲晓宇 Assistant Professor of Political Science at University of Nevada, Reno

    "Andrew is an extremely productive and talented scholar. I have met him at the CWP annual workshop and have cited him in my own publications. His analysis is always balanced, nuanced, reliable, and extremely insightful. His scholarship has made extraordinary contributions to China studies, international security studies, and US-China relations"
  • Ian Easton

    Ian Easton Research Fellow at Project 2049 Institute

    "Put quite simply, Andrew is a national treasure. The field of China studies and the national security establishment as a whole have benefited beyond measure from his prescient analyses and intellectual courage. His research is superb, his writing prolific, and his methods innovative. More importantly, Andrew has had the guts to say (sometimes very unpopular) things that the Navy needed to hear about the implications of China's ASBM program. Speaking truth to power is never easy, and he did it when many others wouldn't. As a result, the entire community underwent a paradigm shift. People forget that many of the key working assumptions we now take for granted about the emerging A2/AD environment in the Pacific seemed impossible back in 2010 and earlier when Andrew was writing about them. I have been a student of his work for many years, and feel fortunate to have had him as a reviewer of mine. He is an analytical force multiplier. His depth and breadth of expertise is truly remarkable. He also has a gift for the Chinese language and understands the cultural, historical and psychological drivers of PRC behavior in a way that a vanishingly few other Americans do. His contributions to the community are unparalleled and he is a true intellectual leader in our generational cohort."
  • Wendell Minnick

    Wendell Minnick Asia Bureau Chief at Defense News

    "Having worked with Andrew at both the 2010 and 2012 Zhuhai Airshows, I can assure anyone that his 'boots on the ground' is unique within the academic community dealing with China. Few feel the need to mix it up directly with Chinese defense industry officials and companies. Wendell Minnick, Asia Bureau Chief, Defense News"
  • Julian Snelder

    Julian Snelder Partner, Amiya Capital

    "I attended the UCSD-IGCC 2013 SITC workshop at which Dr. Andrew Erickson was a key faculty member. I have followed his work closely over the years, such as his China Signpost website and his numerous posts on WSJ Real Time Report and The Diplomat. I have read all his open source materials including most recently his book on ASBM. It was a great honor to meet him in person at the SITC workshop and to interact with him in real time. As a financial professional based in Hong Kong, my primary interest is in the civilian and commercial aspects of high-tech innovation economies in Asia. Although Erickson comments mainly on military and security matters, I find his knowledge and relevance to be highly relevant to non-military (or dual-use) fields. For example, Erickson has intimate knowledge of the aviation engine industry, which is an engineering discipline I also happen to have training in. His writings on China's defense aerospace sector could be mirrored in a discourse on the C919 program, for instance. As an investor in the Chinese aerospace sector, I have benefited directly from accessing his know-how. Erickson also has a rare strategic perspective on East Asia and the ability to integrate/synthesize multiple disciplinary thinking. This is exactly the sort of analysis which investors like myself find valuable. Specifically, he is highly familiar with economic, political and commercial issues and is able to write extensively on topics like sea-lane access, energy economics and China's overseas resource investments. These happen to be exactly at the sweet spot of interest for Asian analysts and portfolio managers. Erickson writes with a precision and practicality that makes him a must-read for anyone working hands-on in this part of the world."
  • Yanzhong Huang

    Yanzhong Huang Senior Fellow for Global Health at Council on Foreign Relations

    "Andrew is one of the leading scholars on the PLA, and probably the best young scholar on China's naval power."
  • Oriana Skylar Mastro

    Oriana Skylar Mastro Assistant Professor, Georgetown University

    "Andrew Erickson is one of the leading experts on the Chinese military in the field. His work is not only rigorously researched and clearly written, but it is influential in both the policy and academic realms. I have assigned his work in my course at Georgetown on the Chinese military, specifically his research on the Chinese navy's deployment to the Gulf of Aden and his work on the ASBM. In my career with the United States Air Force, we also rely on Andrew's prolific writings on Chinese airpower - one of the few serious scholars that are writing on this important topic. Andrew is truly a public intellectual as well as a respected scholar of strategy and military studies."
  • Adam P. Liff

    Adam P. Liff Research Fellow, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs at Harvard Kennedy School of Government

    "Andrew is an extraordinarily talented researcher and one of the hardest-working and most knowledgeable scholars on China defense issues. He also has extensive knowledge of Japan, India, and the Asia-Pacific more broadly; and maintains robust professional relationships across the region. His research sets the standard for his field, in terms of quality, rigor, depth, and policy-relevance. It has been a privilege and a pleasure to co-author several pieces with Andrew over the past several years, and I look forward to doing so again in the future."
  • Andrew Kennedy

    Andrew Kennedy Discovery Early Career Research Award Fellow, Crawford School, The Australian National University

    "Andrew is a top-flight analyst of international security in Asia and a marvelously prolific scholar. He brings a remarkable range of expertise to his work; in fact, it is hard to think of many scholars in his field who can bring to bear comparably broad erudition. His training in political science and international relations is complemented by an impressive knowledge of China and Asia, as well as a strong understanding of such diverse subjects as military history, economic development, corporate strategy, and technological innovation. He is also tremendously diligent and passionate about his work, as well as an excellent colleague. I have been fortunate enough to know Andrew for more than five years, and I value his insights enormously."
  • Tom Crowell

    Tom Crowell Director for Intelligence (J2) at US Forces Japan

    "The open source expert on the PRC. His bottomless understanding of the PRC is equally matched by his clear instruction and interaction with colleagues and students. It's professors like Andrew that give my diploma and the War College its value. A true national asset."
  • Steve Loeffler

    Steve Loeffler Senior Lecturer, Faculty, Naval Postgraduate School

    "As Director of the Naval Postgraduate School's Resgional Security Education Program (RSEP) for deploying Naval Forces, I selected Professor Erickson, on the recommendation of the President of Naval War College, to particpate in a program for the NIMITZ Carrier Strike Group deploying to the Western Pacific and Indian Oceans. His program of 12 different hour-long lectures on China and Northeast Asia were exceptionally well received by Rear Admiral Mike White, Commander Carrier Strike Group 11 and the officers, Sailors and Marines of the NIMITZ Strike Group. At the request of the strike group commander, we worked together to build and deliver briefs on the North Korean missile and nuclear crisis issues. He is a great asset to the Navy and the Nation and I look forward to working with him again with other deploying forces."
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    "Simply, Andrew is widely recognized as the #1 scholar on Chinese aerospace and maritime and naval policy and strategy of his generation. There is no one else that does as well at coupling exceptional scholarship and original research with policy-relevant analysis, which makes his high productivity all the more remarkable. Dr. Erickson is a national asset."
  • Ian Chong

    Ian Chong Faculty

    "Andrew is one of the leading experts on Chinese military technology, its development, and application. He has extensive knowledge of China's military and its military-industrial complex, topics on which he has been working on for a long time. These areas of expertise have very significant barriers to entry, which involves technical knowledge and familiarity with the politics on top of the requisite language abilities. Andrew consistently demonstrates these skills through his numerous publications, and various government agencies place substantial value on his advice relating to the Chinese military. His translations of Chinese texts on related topics provide a valuable resource for those conducting research on the Chinese military as well. Andrew is well-positioned to bridge the academic, policymaking, and public worlds in the United States and beyond. The accessibility of Andrew’s work is evident from the fact that policymakers in the United States and elsewhere often seek his views and advice on matters relating to the Chinese military. His experience with the National Committee on U.S.-China Relations makes clear his ability to make the complications of Chinese military development accessible to non-specialist audiences. Andrew’s mastery of Chinese puts him in a position to work with Chinese interlocutors on their own terms. His ties with expert communities across Asia also put him in a very strong position to engage regional politics in Asia both as a scholar and a practitioner. Such abilities are especially valuable given the need to raise general awareness in the United States and elsewhere about the the U.S.-China relationship, which is likely to be key in shaping world politics this century."
  • Michael Raska

    Michael Raska Research Fellow, Institute of Defence and Strategic Studies, RSIS, NTU

    "Andrew's pathbreaking work provides a tremendous source to students of China's defense-industrial and military transformation, such as myself. I have had the honor to learn from Andrew directly in the 2013 Summer Training Workshop on the Relationship between National Security and Technology in China, held at the UC San Diego. His insightful analysis of the latest trends and developments in China's sector specific defense industries, discussions in breakout groups, and contributions to the course reader, have been more than helpful. Andrew's pursuit of teaching and research excellence has inspired my interests in the subject."
  • Scott Tait

    Scott Tait Surface Warfare Officer, U.S. Navy

    "As Exec Assistant to the Commander of US 7th Fleet I worked with Dr. Erickson on several projects related to the US Navy-China relationship. His research is superb, providing relevant, practical, timely information that has significant influence and impact. His direct support to fleet planners is exceptional. Dr. Erickson is a priceless and trusted partner who provides accurate and nuanced insights that would not otherwise be available to us. He has a unique ability to work with equal effectiveness in both academic and practitioner arenas."
  • Michael Chase

    Michael Chase Senior Political Scientist at RAND Corporation

    "Andrew is one of the hardest working and most talented young China analysts I've had the pleasure to work with over the years. Andrew's work is first rate and covers a broad range of subjects, from Chinese foreign policy debates to the latest developments involving the PLA Navy and China's missile force. He is also a great colleague. Anyone who has worked with Andrew at the Naval War College would surely agree that he is very generous with his time, whether to offer another faculty member detailed feedback on their work or to assist a student with a paper. Please feel free to contact me directly for a more detailed recommendation."
  • Felix Boecking

    Felix Boecking Economic Historian of Modern China

    "Andrew combines intense attention to detail with the ability to communicate clearly and concisely, from a thirty-second summary of a complex problem in conversation to a comprehensive policy brief or research paper. In his research and policy work, he demonstrates that relevance and public interest does not have to come at the expense of high-quality research."
  • PJ Tech

    PJ Tech First Officer, 767 & 757, international at American Airlines

    "Andrew's analytic skills, enthusiasm, and outstanding work ethic are evident to every student who has the honor of working with him at the Naval War College. His expertise in teaching Professional Military Education has already shaped an entire generation of officers from all services, particularly those working in the Asia-Pacific region. As a Military Professor at the Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies, it was always an honor to be able to host Andrew for discussions with our faculty, in which he never failed to provide new perspectives on the Asia-Pacific region. Although he is noted world wide for his work on China, his understanding of the larger region is truly remarkable and valuable. Please feel free to contact me directly if you would like to further discuss the immense respect I have for Andrew and his work."
  • Austin Strange

    Austin Strange Graduate Student, Zhejiang University

    "I have been fortunate to work under Professor Erickson’s tutelage since 2011 at the China Maritime Studies Institute. His intimate knowledge of China and Asian international relations, as well as his intellectual rigor, interdisciplinary dynamism and policy leadership are an extraordinary combination. His mentorship, in addition to catalyzing my growth as a young scholar of Chinese IR and security studies, has equipped me with the motivation and tools needed to ask vital questions about the world’s most dynamic power. In particular, Professor Erickson inspires his colleagues and students by demonstrating unrelenting dedication to his craft. His energy and curiosity for China studies are truly contagious and remind those around him why this field is so important. Second, Professor Erickson understands the delicate balance between faculty guidance and student responsibility essential for successful academic collaboration. Finally, the rigorous academic expectations he imposes on himself and his collaborators are balanced by his dynamic personality, which allows him to work effectively with students, professors and policymakers. I recommend Professor Erickson most highly as an educator of China and Asia-Pacific affairs."
  • Jed Horwitt

    Jed Horwitt Deputy Director at Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Investigator Awards in Health Policy Research

    "I've held a high professional opinion of Dr. Erickson throughout the ten year period we've known each other. I am continually struck by his dedication to academic and scholarly pursuits, his impressive work ethic, constructive attitude, upbeat humor, and enthusiasm as a teacher, researcher, and thought leader. Dr. Erickson keeps young in heart and mind, and challenges his colleagues to think in new and interdisciplinary ways. His knowledge and publication record on Asian subject matter, particularly that of China, is impressive."
  • Kathleen (Kate) Walsh

    Kathleen (Kate) Walsh Professor of National Security Affairs at US Naval War College

    "Andrew is an excellent researcher and China analyst. Happy to recommend him. For a proper recommendation, contact me directly."
  • Walter Ladwig

    Walter Ladwig Assistant Professor (UK: Lecturer) in International Relations at King's College London

    "Andrew Erickson is a diligent and intelligent scholar with a prolific publication record. As a senior colleague on several collaborative research projects, Andrew provided excellent guidance and mentorship to me as a junior scholar and has also proactively assisted with my professional and career development. I would actively seek to collaborate with Andrew again in the future."
  • Anthony Mastalir

    Anthony Mastalir Space & Missile Defense at Joint Staff (J-5)

    "Dr Andrew Erickson is an extraordinarily gifted researcher and an equally talented writer. I had the pleasure of completing an Advanced Research Project under his guidance and mentorship as a student at the Naval War College. His passion for his research is contagious and his work ethic is second to none. He's a team player, coach, and advisor all in one. Perhaps most impressive is his ability to effectively communicate with both faculty and students at any level. His modesty makes him approachable while his determination and focus makes him a tremendous ally. He's earned my strongest recommendation for nearly any position in academia. Fight to get him on your team!"

Award Ceremony at Spruance Hall Lobby

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Principal Affiliations

The U.S. Naval War College (NWC)’s missions are developing strategic and operational leaders, helping the Chief of Naval Operations define the future Navy, strengthening maritime security cooperation and supporting combat readiness. NWC has pioneered strategic thinking about maritime issues for over one hundred years. Since the first class met on 6 October 1884, in an austere loft with nine students, more than 24,000 U.S. military and international officers, as well as hundreds of senior federal service civilian executives, have graduated from NWC. Throughout its history, the college has acted on the belief, first articulated by its founding president, Rear Admiral Stephen B. Luce, that, “The War College is a place of original research on all questions relating to war and to statesmanship connected with war, or the prevention of war.” Each year, approximately 600 specially-selected mid-career level officers of the Navy, other U.S. services, civilian federal agencies, and international naval officers come to NWC as resident students to pursue a rigorous 10-month course of postgraduate studies. More than half the graduates of the college’s senior international course, the Naval Command College, have subsequently become flag or general officers, and more than 190 have headed their respective services. The college’s Center for Naval Warfare Studies, in which the China Maritime Studies Institute (CMSI) is located, is central to the Navy’s research efforts in maritime strategic thinking.

The China Maritime Studies Institute (CMSI) supports the research needs of the U.S. Navy and was established in 2006 to increase knowledge and understanding of the maritime dimensions of China’s rise. The institute conducts research in the following areas: energy, global commerce, law of the sea, maritime technologies, merchant marine, naval development, naval diplomacy, and shipbuilding. This approach stems in part from the premise that the U.S.-China maritime relationship will form an essential bedrock for maritime security in the 21st century. CMSI is based in the U.S. Naval War College (NWC), which contributes a broad based, multi-dimensional research, analysis and gaming environment with significant linguistic and technological capabilities. CMSI is located at the nexus of the academic, policy, and operational communities. The close proximity of many of the nation’s leading academic institutions offers the potential for unmatched intellectual synergies. Indeed, CMSI is seeking collaborative partnerships with other government research centers, civilian academic institutions, and other appropriate organizations. Such partnerships will facilitate cutting edge research on China’s maritime development.

The Asia-Pacific Studies Group (APSG) consists of faculty and students at the Naval War College with expertise, experience, or an interest in mainland China, Taiwan, Japan, North and South Korea, Russia, Southeast Asia, Australia, Oceania, regional maritime affairs, and U.S. policy and military strategy in the Asia-Pacific region. The APSG acts as a catalyst, coordinator, and implementer of research to serve the needs of the Navy, U.S. Pacific Command, and other elements of the U.S. Government responsible for formulating policy, strategy, and planning related to Asia and the Pacific. At the Naval War College, the group serves as a focal point for information sharing related to major policy developments within the region and U.S. policy. In addition to assisting U.S. national security policy makers, the APSG serves as one of the Naval War College’s primary forums for addressing a full range of Asia-Pacific strategy and policy issues. The APSG hosts guest speakers and convenes periodic seminars for members to report on research in progress. The group performs an important outreach function for the college by facilitating faculty participation in major conferences and research activities in the Asia-Pacific region and in the United States. APSG works with the China Maritime Studies Institute, the Indian Ocean Studies Group, and the John A. van Beuren Chair of Asia-Pacific Studies at the Naval War College to promote greater regional awareness. In addition, the APSG undertakes periodic interactions with other military colleges across the region and with major research organizations devoted to Asia and the Pacific. Finally, APSG performs a coordinating function with the electives program on the growing array of course offerings on the region and on U.S. Asia-Pacific strategy, enabling students to increase their knowledge of this important region and to fulfill the requirements for the College’s Asia-Pacific Studies Concentration. The Asia-Pacific area of studies offers a broad selection of courses from basic surveys on specific countries to more specialized topics of importance to the Navy such as Chinese maritime development.

The John King Fairbank Center for Chinese Studies at Harvard University has historically been a post-graduate research center. From the start, its purpose has been to support and advance cutting-edge scholarship in the field of Chinese Studies through sponsoring seminars and conferences, through assisting in the publication of research results, and by welcoming postdoctoral fellows, visiting scholars, and associates in research to the Center. The Center is now adding an additional mission, to include undergraduate and graduate students in its intellectual life, by awarding grants to students and student organizations, by inviting student groups to co-sponsor Center events, and by holding functions for students. The Center participates in many of the student-focused activities on campus that have a China component. The Fairbank Center is a unit of Harvard University’s Faculty of Arts and Sciences. The Center works closely with other Asia-focused institutions within the University including the Asia Center, the Harvard China Fund, the Reischauer Institute of Japanese Studies, the Korea Institute, the South Asia Initiative, the Harvard-Yenching Institute and the Harvard-Yenching Library.

The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) is an independent, nonpartisan membership organization, think tank, and publisher. CFR’s current membership of nearly 4,700 is divided among those living in New York, Washington, DC, and across the country and abroad. For those between the ages of thirty and thirty-six there is the Stephen M. Kellen Term Member Program. The Corporate Program serves an international membership of about two hundred leading global corporations. The David Rockefeller Studies Program—CFR’s think tank—is composed of more than eighty full-time and adjunct fellows who cover the major regions and significant issues shaping today’s international agenda. The program also includes recipients of several one-year fellowships. The Studies Program is organized into more than a dozen program areas and centers that focus on major geographical areas of the world or significant foreign policy issues, including the Maurice R. Greenberg Center for Geoeconomic Studies, the Center for Preventive Action, the International Institutions and Global Governance program, the Civil Society, Markets, and Democracy initiative, and the Renewing America initiative. Access to CFR’s high-level discussions—with world leaders, U.S. government officials, CEOs, policy analysts, and others—is available through select videos, audio recordings, and unedited transcripts. Outreach initiatives target constituencies increasingly important to the national foreign policy debate: educators and students; religious and congregational leaders; state and local officials; and nonprofit, civic, and community leaders. The Washington Program actively engages decision-makers in Congress, the executive branch, and the diplomatic community. The bimonthly Foreign Affairs is widely considered to be the most influential magazine for the analysis and debate of foreign policy and economics. Its website, ForeignAffairs.com, publishes original daily features and hosts the complete archives going back to 1922. Independent Task Forces work to reach consensus on how to deal with critical foreign policy challenges. CFR’s website is a trusted, nonpartisan source of timely analysis and context on international events and trends. CFR.org publishes backgrounders, interviews, “first-take” analysis, expert blogs, and a variety of multimedia offerings that include videos, podcasts, interactive timelines, and the Emmy-winning Crisis Guide series. The site also presents the work of CFR’s Think Tank, including books, reports, congressional testimony, and op-eds, as well as audio, video, and transcripts of CFR events. Each weekday morning, the Daily News Brief delivers subscribers an authoritative digest of global news and analysis compiled by CFR.org’s editors.

The Princeton-Harvard China and the World Program offers post-doctoral fellowships to encourage exceptional advanced graduate students and new Ph.D.s to integrate their knowledge of international relations as a discipline with their knowledge of China. The program provides an opportunity for scholars to advance their research, to develop a stronger sense of community with others working on both China and international relations, to forge interdisciplinary ties with China experts in other fields as well as with policy makers and intellectuals without China expertise, and to access the first-class resources in international relations and China that both Princeton and Harvard have to offer.

The Public Intellectuals Program (PIP), launched by the National Committee on U.S.-China Relations in 2005, is dedicated to nurturing the next generation of China specialists who, in the tradition of earlier China hands, have the interest and potential to venture outside of academia to engage with the public and policy community. Through a varied set of activities spread out over two-and-a-half years, the program helps twenty young American scholars and specialists working in various disciplines to expand their knowledge of China beyond their own interests by introducing them to other each other as well as specialists from outside their fields. The program offers unique opportunities for professional development, mentoring by senior scholars, networking, and exposure. PIP fellows gain access to senior policymakers and experts in both the United States and China, and to individuals and fields they would not typically be exposed to, including, for instance, the emerging business and nonprofit sectors in China, as well as the media. The program’s ultimate objective is to upgrade the quality of American public understanding of China by strengthening links among U.S. academics, policymakers, opinion leaders, and the public.


Favorite Quotations

“A people which does not possess the power to innovate will never take its place among the advanced nations of the world.”
– Jiang Zemin, General Secretary of the Communist Party of China, 1989-2002; President of the People’s Republic of China, 1993-2003; Chairman of the Central Military Commission, 1989-2005

“There’s a certain exuberance that comes from being out on the edge of technology, where things are not certain, where there is some risk, and where you make something work.”
– Joseph G. Gavin, Jr; director, Apollo Lunar Module Program; president, Grumman Corporation, 1976-85

“不是我不明白, 而是世界变得太快.” – 崔健

“It’s not that I don’t understand, it’s just that the world is changing so fast.”
– Cui Jian, father of Chinese rock music